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Lecture 6

AR104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Tahiti, Doric Order, Sarissa


Department
Archaeology and Heritage Studies
Course Code
AR104
Professor
Nirmal Dass
Lecture
6

Page:
of 3
How do greek ideas become universal?
- up to this point the ideas have been confined to one city
- no longer Athenian ideas, become universal
Alexander the Great
- turn our attention to Macedonia
- northern part of Greece
- when an Athenian refers to a Macedonian it is in a pejorative sense
- macedon means the highlands
- highlands are thought of people who are below
Macedonia
- speak greek
- can only guess at what the language was, but can understand it as greek
- ancient dialect of the doric language
- on the fringes of the greek world
- Macedonia has taken a different route than other greek cities
- Still retains absolute kingship, kings as in homer, true kings with all the
power
- Political structure is very different
- In a constant struggle for survival because of attacks from other northern
tribes (not greeks but indo Europeans)
- Thrace Thracians
- A balance of power the Athenians and Spartans have only recently faced
- Athenians and Spartans havenever faced constant threats
- Constant struggle for survival
Tactics to survive
- king of this time (amyntas) has decided to confront this problem and come
up with some kind of solution by looking at the structure of the army that he
has and innovating
- he borrows effective tactics from the Spartans and Athenians mainly the
phalanx (a line of soldiers who connect shields as a wall and there is a mass
behind)
- comes up with a sarissa which is a lance that is extremely long and has an
iron head
- when the phalanx moves forward it has amazing range
- he is replacedby Philip II
- found an effective mean of military dominance and becomes the dominant
power in northern Greece
- he enlarged his area of influence
- Philip has a very stable kingdom
- Chaos in the south, Macedonia is stable
- Philip starts to move southward
- He sends out ambassaders to Athens and asks them to join with him ** he
excludes Sparta uh oh!
- Macedonia has always tried to imitate Athenian culture
- When Philip approaches Athens, you would think that it is a natural step
- Athenians don’t want to join with the Macedonians because they lost their
power structure with Sparta and are in a quest to find it again
- The highlanders are seen as saviours who maybe will bring back the glory
days for Athens
- The Macedonians become interested in being part of Athenian life
- Close connection between Athens and Macedonia from early on
- Philip then undertakes the same thing with other greek cities excluding
Sparta and he concludes a treaty with each and every one
- He brings stability to a region that has known civil war for a long time
- See what Athens has achieved and forms a lose alliance with Macedonia
- He has created a situation that will be the basis of a future Macedonian
empire for his son, alexander the great
- He had plans to keep expanding westward and eastward and if he started a
war with the Persians he’d have the greeks behind him
- Persian empire occupies a vast empire
- This is where fate intervenes
- Philip in his day was a very strong and powerful man, he is an Olympian of
his day
- In that time it was foot racing, disc throwing, wrestling and boxing!!!!
- He had to be good at all dat shi
- He partially lost the use of his right leg
- He is seen as a powerful man because according to the Macedonians he
represents the god zeus, he is seen as a descendant or a son
- Hes got a ton o’ prestige
- Amaaazing army
- Hes a guud king that erryone wants tah be ruled bi
- His influence is personal
- He has been able to establish stability (he said that like eighty two times)
- HE AINT a tyrant
- Olympias
- He had many bitches
- Kingship in Macedonia associated with old religious structures
Alexander 356 B.C
- Macedonia is in a bad situation
- Alexander comes into his own and shows a remarkable skill for leadership at
a very early age
- he succeeds the throne and is benefactor of all the internal powers and
strengths that Philip had established
he becomes king in 336 B.C.
- he has access to a very fine army, a lot of weath his father has accumulated, a
very coherent support system in the shape of his mother
- she has brought together the Macedonian nobility into agreement that they
will all support alexander
- alexander takes this strength of the state and the support that he has and
uses it effectively
- he does not hesitate, the minute he is made king he marches out to subdue all
of the problem peeps
- brings a bunch of neighboring communities under control