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Lecture

AR104 Lecture Notes - Fertile Crescent, Dimini, Franchthi Cave


Department
Archaeology and Heritage Studies
Course Code
AR104
Professor
Debra Foran

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Early Greece
Prehistory and Early Greece:
Paleolithic—! ! 40000—7000BCE
Neolithic—! ! 7000—3000BCE
Early Bronze Age—!3000—2100BCE
Middle Bronze Age—!2100—1600BCE
Prehistory:
—small population until 150 000BP (before present)
—number of sites increased and included open-air and cave locations
—new tools appear in mid-paleolithic (more diversity of tools such as harpoons for hunting fish, and bone
needles of sewing)
—humans became familiar with seasonality of certain foods
—population size increased
—lived at sites for a short period of time
—moved around based on factors such as season, water, hunting, visibility, plants
—access to stone (to tools)
Franchthi Cave:
—inhabited from 20 000 BCE to 3000 BCE
—seasonal visitor attracted by water source and shelter
—beginning of neolithic (c. 7000BCE) > started producing food
—evidence shows that inhabitants hunted deer and smaller game, caught fish, gathered wild cereal, wild
peas, beans and nuts
—12 000 BCE > climate change, Greece became warmer
—8000 BCE > see presence of obsidian (glass like), used for making tools, good for surgery > comes from
the island of Melos (120km away from site, the cave) —they travelled there by foot.
—they had contact with people outside their main land
—harvesting food with tools made from obsidian
—burials found in caves, ritual of the dead— care was taken for those people who died (similar to modern-
day)
—domestication of animals and plants (7000 BCE—Neolithic)
Domestication:
—necessary for development of civilization
—influenced by the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia)
—seemed to have occurred instantly in Greece
Neolithic (7000—3000BCE)
—small villages
—hunting and foraging alongside agriculture and pastoralism
—domesticated plants and animals-introduced by the Near East and to weave cloth on a loom
—egalitarian social relations
—lowlands, access to water, fertile soil, farming village in Greece called Thessaly, larger more organized
village
—still hunted wild animals and plants
—mainly farmed grain
—pastoralism was a back up, pastoralism is keeping animals such as sheep, goats, cows, etc.
—relied on social ties and social relations—in case their crops died
The Greek World (CL101-A)!September 16th, 2010
Lecture 2
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