AR 226 Lecture 9: AR 226 Lecture 9

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11 Feb 2016
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AR 226 Lecture 9
Feb 4/ 16
1 st
Century BC: Turbulent Times with Ambitious Generals
Gaius Marius (157 – 86 BC)
o107 BC: elected as consul to fight a war in Numidia against Jugartha
Disrupted the supply of granite to Rome so war began between Rome and
Jugartha in 111 BC and was going badly until Marius
oWas a novus homo, the 1st in his family to become a consul
oHe was consul 7 times
oMost known for his military reforms; he was very innovative
oGot rid of the property requirements necessary to become a soldier
oNew volunteers called proletarii (proletariats) below lowest property class
oIts first professional army which easily defeated Jugartha
oNumidia was devided into 2 client kingdoms
Cimbri and Teutoni: Warlike tribes had migrated into central and western
Europe in search of land and plunder
Had wiped out Romans in Arausio in Transalpine Gaul
oMore military reforms
Reorganized each legion into 10 units of 5-6 hundred heavily armed
infantry called cohorts
Each cohort had 6 centuries of 80-100 men, a century was commanded by
a centurion
Introduced new legionary standards; Eagles
Trained them to fight like gladiators
The army was more mobile
oAnnihilated the Germanic tribes in separate battles in Southern France and
Northern Italy
o100BC: To overcome the opposition of senators Marius relied upon populare
Saturnius, a plebeian tribune
Proposed that the veterans from fighting Germanic tribes were to be given
land in Transalpine Gaul
New permanent court to deal with crime of Maiestas, making it a criminal
offence to injure, comprise, or diminish the honour or dignity of the
Roman people
Restored the grain laws of Gaius Gracchus
oNot popular and he was killed
91 BC: Livius Druscus the Younger elected as a plebeian tribune
oProposed to double the size of the senate to 600 by adding an equal number of
senators
oProposed Roman citizenship to all Latins and Italians
oAssassinated and his death led to a terrible war
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The Social War (socii, allies) 90-87 BC
oItalians finally revolted after not being given citizenship
oFiercest antagonists were the Marsi and the Samnites
They created a new capital at Corfinum with the name Italica
oCreated coinage for economic independence
oRomans began to make political concessions to Italians
Lex Julia 90 BC – Citizenship to all Italians who laid down their arms
immediately
Lex Plautia-Papiria 89 BC – Citizenship to all who would lay down arms
and register within 60 days
Lex Pompeia 88 BC – Citizenship to those who lived south of the Tiber
river and Italian rights to those north
First Mithridatic War (88 – 84 BC)
oKing Mithridates VI of Pontus
oNorth of Asia minor
oAttacked Asia and went on to conquer most of Southern Greece
Lucius Cornelius Sulla (134 – 78 BC)
oSenate decided on consul Sulla to lead the army against Mithridates
oSulpicious transferred command to Marius
oSulla marched on Rome in 88 BC with his army
oThis was the first civil war at Rome
oRoman troops had become more loyal to their commander than to the state
oMarius barely escapes
oSulla made centuriate assembly, the primary legislative assembly
Increase the power to the senate
oRevoked the rights of the tribunes
oCinna annulled Sulla’s laws and rioting began when optimates opposed
oCinna marched on Rome with Marius
86 BC: Marius held his 7th and last consulship and died soon after
86 BC: Sulla attacked Athens because they sided with Mithridates
Defeated Mithridates in many battles
oSurrendered conquests in Asia minor and still able to rule his kingdom of Pontus
82 BC: Marched on Rome at the Battle of Colline Gates and defeated the anti-Sullan
forces
oMade dictator for the purpose of drafting laws and reconstitution of the State
No time limit with absolute imperium
The Reign of Terror began
oPosted a proscription list of those he wished removed
oDeclared public enemies and killed without a trial
oAnyone who killed them was rewarded
Sulla’s changes to the constitution
oIncreased the membership of the senate to 600 by recruiting 300 wealthy
equestirans
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