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AR103 - Nov16.pdf

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR103
Professor
Jonathan Haxell
Semester
Fall

Description
AR103 - Week 10 - Nov. 16, 2011 Primate Evolution of the Tertiary: - Oligocene (33-23mybp) - Adaptive radiation of ancestral haplorhines - Populations - Epoch of the monkey - Small compared to modern monkeys - Insectivorous, frugivorous, gumnivorous - Quadrupedal - climbing / leaping populations - Propliopithcidae: - e.g. Aegyptopithecus - Arboreal, quadrupedal - Larger bodied - Methodical climber - Fruit and leaf eating population (frugivorous, folivorous) - Probable ancestor of infraorder Catarrhinii - Implications: - Divergence between parvorders Platyrrhini / Catarrhini - Divergence between primates of Old World and New - Propliothecines (Aegyptopithecus): - Possible common ancestor of Old World (catarrhine) primates - No good candidate for the platyrhini common ancestor - probably contemporary of oligopithecidae /parapithecidae - Corresponds to geological conditions- - Miocene (23-5 mybp) - Implications: - Divergence between circopithecoidea/hominoidea - Old world monkey/ape-human line - Early miocene adaptive radiation ancestral catarrhines - Resulted in number of old world populations - eg. (genus) Proconsul - Population in transition - All arboreal populations - Different adaptations to different environments - Some proconsulids (like old world monkeys) - Horizontal spine - Proportional limb length ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ - Other populations - orthograde posture (like modern apes) - Adaptive radiation of superfamily hominoidea: - Late miocene produced a number of ape-like populations - e.g. Oreopithecus - Large bodied (chimpanzee-sized), quadrumanual - Recovered from western Old World - Africa, Europe - Gigantopithecus - Largest known primate (600lbs average) - Eastern Old World (Asian) hominoid - Dryopithecus / Sivapithecus: - Large bodied , climbing, swinging, populations - Graecopithecus (Ouranopithecus) - Gorilla sized (500lbs) Western Old world (Greece, Africa) 1 AR103 - Week 10 - Nov. 16, 2011 - Environmentally: - Miocene continued trend of Oligocene - Cooler, drier. - Continued reduction of tropical rainforests - Replaced with savanna grasslands - Presumed impact on primates: - Increased competition for arboreal habitats - Forced some to become terrestrial populations - Oreopithecus (extinct before end of miocene) - Gigantopithecus (extinct before end of miocene) - Dryopithecus (good candidate morphologically, probably extinct too early 14-12 mybp)/ Sivapithecus (dates to correct period (6-8 mybp), morphological similarity to orangutan) - Graecopithecus (dates to correct period (10-6mybp), western Old world population (Africa, Europe), morphological similarities to modern African apes) - Of those populations forced to become terrestrial - Most extinct before end of Miocene - At least one survived - By adapting to that environment Pliocene (5-1 mybp) - Environmentally: - Continued cooling / drying trend - Expansion of savanna - Appearance / adaptive radiation of tribe Hominini - Hominins, Hominids - i.e. Recognize ancestors of modern humans Characteristics of Fossil Hominins 1. Position of the foramen magnum - Well forward under skull 2. Differences in tooth size - Non-dimorphic canine 3. Spinal column - ‘S’ shaped 4. Arms - Shorter - Gracile (lighter, less heavily muscled) 5. Pelvis - Short - Broad 6. Legs - Straight bones - Converge at knees - Longer 7. Foot - No opposable great toes - In line great toe - Block like 2 AR103 - Week 10 - Nov. 16, 2011 Hominin Populations of the Pliocene; In Order of their Recovery Paleoanthropologically Australopithecus Africanus - First recovered 1924: - Raymond Dart - Named it, meaning the southern ape-like population of Africa - Sites: caves sites - Taung, South Africa - Sterkfontein - Makapansgat - Deciduous fossil, further named the Taung Child - Cranial cast - Dates: - Stratigraphy - Law of superposition of strat
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