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Lecture 2

AR103- Lecture 2 – Sept.19.12

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Ghislain Thibault

AR103- Lecture 2 – Sept.19.12 The Anthropological Approach 1- Comparative in nature: 2- Holistic: use as many pieces of info./observations that are available in order to draw a conclusion. 3- Process: - natural systems are always changing. - Anthropological models must account for this constant change Anthropology says all things are changing all the time and so the models must account for all the past, present and future changes. Human Biology Human Behaviour All 3 accountable for HUMAN EVOLUTION The Environment All 3 also affect each other THE MODEL (why humans are always evolving and why everything is always changing) Human biology  Human behaviour: our hormones change which cause our behaviour to change. Ex: we hit puberty and develop different desires therefore actions. Human behaviour  Human biology: when we smoke, or behaviour of smoking creates a tumor in our bodies which changes out biology. Human behaviour  the environment: driving cars releases and affects the environment through pollution. The environment  Human behaviour: as the seasons change we change our behaviour of going outside and what we wear. Human biology  the environment: The size of human impact affects the size and number of predators of humans (viruses and bacteria) The environment  Human biology: different viruses and diseases that human are not immune to. 4- Case-study perspective: - begins with simple, small scale, local. - Use the small scale understandings as pieces of the puzzle to understand more complex systems. 5- Exhibits a relativity of viewpoint: - Aware of the problem of bias - Engage in devices to minimize bias (don`t give the artifacts names i.e.: we don’t call it a spear head we call it ‘chipped lithic’ chipped stone Linnaean Classification System 1. WHAT IS IT? - Organic taxonomy - assigns names to all living things - in doing so – identifies relationship between al populations 2. THE SYSTEMS ORIGINS. - Carl Linnaeus- Carolus Linnaeus – Karl Von Linne - Systema Naturae 3. HOW DID THE SYSTEM WORK? Originally - Binomial naming system: Generalized name – GENUS- group of like populations Specific name – SPECIES- identified by sexual exclusivity (they can breed and produce viable (fertile) offspring) - Latin based naming system: likely that more people would speak/understand than any other language. - Based on observable- morphological and physiological traits. Today - Binomial - Latin based - based on observable traits - Phylogenetic system: based and grouped together based on their evolutionary proximity.(Driven by different technology that wasn`t available in the past which gives us genetic data.) PROBEMS WITH VISIBLE ASSIGNMENT OF RELATIONSHIP 1. Convergent Evolution: - Manifestly similar traits may develop on two or more unrelated populations. - Product of similar adaptation to same environment - Homoplasies: - process - Analogies: - two similar traits in unrelated populations (Flying fish) 2. Diverge
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