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Lecture

CL 101 Notes March 3rd 2013.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR104
Professor
Nirmal Dass
Semester
Winter

Description
March 3 , 2013 Why does democracy happen in Athens and nowhere else? Around 500bc…  Athens gave power to different assemblies and also built a strong economic base o Built up a navy o Wealth  Athens allows itself to become involved in the politics of the other 1500(or so) city states in greek speaking area  Athens plays a crucial role in the state of Ionia o Ionia has become under the influence of Persian empire (Persian empire because it has been established by slow and relentless conquest)  Independent cities in Ionia tuen to ATHENS because they have a reputation of being powerful and rich for HELP o Persia has taken us over, can you help us out because you are the most powerful Greek state!  Athens decides to help Ionian cities… o CREATES CONFLICT AGAINST PERSIAN EMPIRE (outnumbered in ranks) o One city vs empire  Series of conflicts and things  by 480bc, there was the FIRST PERSIAN WAR o Persians finally decide to deal with pesky Athens, and invade Greece (they can do this because they are a huge empire) o 300 SPARTANS! (story) o Phalanx system (Greek) with spears sticking out, in an assembly  Very effective means of defeating enemy  HOPLITES (soldier with long lance and round shield[hoplos])  Battle at Thermopylae! o Hoplites were to hold Persians on land until Athenians could assemble their navy and come up to them from behind o Not only a battle to defeat the Persians, it also will determine the outcome of the Greek cities/system? o Leonaidus- Spartan king  Went to Athens and making a faulty promise that the entire Spartan army would help out…  The Spartan state always wanted to be the LEADERS OF GREECE.  Decided NOT to send their army anyways, because they could let the Persians take out Athens; their TRUE ENEMY o Athens is left alone (creating bad feeling against Spartans and Athenians) o Each king has a BODYGUARD OF 300 MEN! o So the 300 men came from Leonaidus’s 300 men o 300 Spartans and other Greeks hold off Persians until Persians defeated them with archers o PERSIANS INVADE GREECE  At Salymus bay, their navy congregates and have to fight against Persians  ATHENIANS WIN!!!!  Sets the stage because Athens is even a greater power than before!  Commanded respect of all other city states  Greeks gather and organize themselves; annual meeting for army organization o Delian Leauge lead by Athens o all city states must contribute wealth to create a standing army and navy o all wealth is collected and stored by Athens!  INVENTION OF COINS AND CURRENCY o Delient league started this o Metals and good are so heavy etc. o Lydia had the idea; each piece of metal shall be a representative token of the value of the money we are sending in. Tokens represent contribution. Symbolic representation; trade in tokens for things you need. o LYDIANS INVENTED IDEA OF MONEY/COINAGE o Makes their economic system work even better! (interest, trade, etc, because dealing with numbers rather than goods) o Athenians need to be able to manage this amount of money!  INVENTION OF BANKS  Institution of handling cash. Facilitate its movement  Athenians effectively create a system of money management; allow the symbolic transfer of wealth over a long distance  GREATLY INCCREASES WEALTH OF ATHENS  SPARTA DOES NOT WANT TO BE PART OF ATHENIAN LIFE, CREATES ITS OWN VERSION OF
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