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Lecture 4

Week 4 Lecture 1.docx

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Nirmal Dass

Week 4 Lecture 1 nd October 2 2012 Archiac Age - 480 BC - Political and social reorganization - Polis (city state) o Rulers are no longer kings, people representing citizens o Has been created, run by representatives o Social reorganization  Land owners are getting larger, surrounds the city (Attica)  Redistributed - Sent out to various parts of the Mediterranean o Once you leave mother city (metropolis), you never come back o The people who leave are chosen by elective officials  Name was drawn at random  Non - land owners - “Greekizing begins at this time” - South of France, city of Marcais o Founded by ancient Greek colonies - A lot of people wanted to run their cities the same way - Hunger for new kind of thinking - Hesiod: The Works and Days o Writing about Archiac period o Ordinary life, first record of what life was like o Work, farming is important  Things we don’t really think about o Gave great deal of moral value to work  Work = morality o Drastic change, no longer the world we are used to with Homer o Only mentions the real life not the gods etc. o Philosophy  Individuality doesn’t matter  Gods are archetypes  Collectivity is no longer important  Major shift in mind set o Now able to talk about various ideas  Beginning of grand themes (artistic, humanistic, philosophical, scientific) o World has become narrow, small  Also vast, shift on individual, now important o The gods are absent totally, yes they exist although human work can change nature o Human action depends on individual effort o Work = human activity and the importance o In Homer, gods interfered with human activity o Notion of individuality, also the idea of personal independence, life should not depend authority, you run your life  Begins with Hesiod o Individuality + independence = freedom } responsibility } beauty  Summary of all Greek philosophy o Without freedom there is no
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