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Lecture 5

Greek World Lecture 5.docx

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Alexis Young

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Greek World Lecture 5 Panhellenic Sanctuaries  Sanctuaries for “all Greeks”  Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia ca. 1000 BCE The Olympic Games  776 BCE – the first Olympic Games  Stade – the first event o 180m = (a Greek stade) footrace o Won by Koroibos of Elis o Only event for next 13 Olympiads  By 200 BCE about 20 events o Chariot, horse racing, pentathlon, wrestling, etc  393 CE – games banned (Christianity) o Arch evidence suggests they lasted 1 century longer The Circuit Games 1. Olympic Games at Olympia in honour of Zeus 2. Pythian games at Delphi in honour of Apollo 3. Nemean games at Nemea in honour of Zeus 4. Isthmian games at Isthmia in honour of Poseidon The Circuit Games  Athlete (athlos) = one who competes for a prize  Circuit games only offered wreaths  Olympic – the olive wreath  Only first prize and no team sports  Milo of Croton – circuit winner  Victors immortalized in victory odes of lyric poet Pindar The Sanctuary of Zeus  Olympic named after Mt. Olympus the home of the gods  Religious activities part of the games  Earthquake in Roman Period causes columns to fall th  Leonidaion – guest-house erected 4 century BCE The Olympic Program  Preparation begins 10 months in advance  In spring 3 heralds sent to all corners of the Greek world to announce the games  Competitors arrive one month before at Elis  2 days before they go to Olympia  Performed nude (except for charioteers)  Gymnasium = a place where people exercise nude  Palaestra used for wrestling practice  Oil used to keep dust out of pores  Later scrubbed off with a strigil  No married women allowed except the priestess to Demeter  Girl’s footrace in honour of Hera called the Heraia held at a separate time Games lasted in 5 days in total  Day 1 o Preparation; oath-taking, religious worship  Day 2 a) 4 horse chariot race in Hippodrome in honour of Pelops st Kyniska of Sparta: 1 female to win an Olympic event - Bronze charioteer from Delphi o c. 474 or 470 BCE - chariots status symbols, no longer with a military function b) horse race c) pentathlon: discus, javelin, long jump (used halters), wrestling, running a. discus – Roman copy the “the discus thrower” by Myron of Athens i. bronze ii. 16.5cm in diameter, weighed 1.25 kg iii. 5 throws to get the farthest distance b. Long jump i. Using lead weights (halters) to propel forwards ii. Halters: weighed around 2kg each; allowed for jumps of 16.3m (modern record is 9m) c. Javelin throw i. 5 throws to get longest distance d. Pentathletes i. Jumper, discus thrower, and 2 javelin throwers e. Votive pit dedication of a pentathlete i. Iron discus, parts of iron heads for javelin, jumping weights, strigil ii. Wins 3 events patathalon ends Footrace and wrestling also held as separate event
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