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Lecture 6

Greek World Lecture 6.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alexis Young

Greek World Lecture 6 Artemis: goddess of the hunt  Goddess of wildlife and the hunt  Virgin goddess of fertility and childbirth (hubris)  Myth of Actaean o Saw Artemis bathing naked in a stream o Turned him into a stag and his dogs killed him  Temple in Turkey (Artemis, Ephesos) Aphrodite: goddess of love  Goddess of love, sex, beauty, fertility, and prostitutes  Birth of Aphrodite o Came from Zeus’s grandfathers genitals that was thrown into the sea  The “slipper-slapper” Aphrodite, Pan (god of goats), Eros (Roman cupid)  Had affairs with other gods and a mortal man Hephaistos: god of the forge  God of fire, blacksmiths, and craftsmen in metal  Created Pandora the first women  Born lame – only god not physically perfect  Temple in Athens  Return of Hephaistos o Was thrown off the mountain o Got him drunk to free his mother from her thrown Hermes: the messenger god  Patron god of merchants and thieves and athletics  Guided souls of the dead to the underworld  Special wand the kerykeion  Created the lyre the day he was born  Stole Apollo’s cattle Athena: goddess of wisdom  Born from Zeus’ head fully clothed, with armour  Patron deity of Athens  Shown with helmet and special breastplate the aegis  The owl: symbol of Athena  The Panathenaic festival o Every 4 years, sacrifices 100 ox’s  The Parthenon for Athena Parthenas o Athena the Maiden Demeter: goddess of grain  Thesmophoria = a women’s only festival  Eleusinian mysteries at Eleusis  Sanctuary of Demeter at Eleusis Hestia: goddess of the hearth  Protectress of the home and domestic life  No temples  No cult statues  No myths  Symbol was the hearth Dionysus: god of wine and theatre  Theatre of Dionysos, Athens  Carries the thyros (special wand of ivy leaves topped by pinecone) and drinking cup  Married to Ariadne, twin boys  Maenads (female followers) and satyrs (male followers)  Effeminate Dionysus riding a tiger  Seems to grow younger Greek Religion  Communication with the gods 1. Prayer a. Invocation of a deity (list of names) b. Reasons why deity answers prayer c. Request of the deity 2. Hymns a. Prayers set to music b. Homeric hymns (Demeter, Apollo, Hermes, and Aphrodite) c. Tell a story about the gods d. Performed in public 3. Votive offering a. gifts to the god b. athletic equipment, statues, earrings, terracotta female figure, body parts votives from a healing sanctuary 4. Ritual sacrifices a. bull to Zeus; horses to Poseidon; cow to Hera b. on the alter in front of temple c. blow to head, cut throat, throw blood onto altar Hesiod  2 great poet of Greek literature after Homer  c. 700 BCE  cheated out of inheritance by brother Perses  didactic poetry: intention to instruct  first person: indicidualism Hesiod’s Poems 1. Theogony: “the origins of the gods” a. Influenced by Near Eastern creation myths b. Prometheus: ultimate trickster c. Pandora, 1 mortal women of Greek myth //s biblical Eve d. Misogyny (for th
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