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Lecture 12

Greek World Lecture 12.docx

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Department
Archaeology
Course
AR104
Professor
Alexis Young
Semester
Fall

Description
Greek World Lecture 12 Comedy and Aristophanes  446-385 BCE  Komoid: a derived from komos: procession of revellers singing and dancing  Priapus, fertility god  Formed a separate competition at City Dionysia  Attic Comedy = choral sang alternating with dialogue  All male cast – chorus of 24, 3/4 actors Plots  Dealt with current political and social issues and personalities  Criticized government policies  Blamed political leaders Aristophanes  Europe’s first and greatest writer of comedies  Lysistrata (411 BCE) Lysistrata  Lysistrata: “disbander of armies”; resembles Lysimakha; “dissolving battles”; real-life priestess of Athens Polias for 64 years  Calonice: “fair victory”  Myrrhine: slang for female genitalia  Spartan Lampito 1. go on a sex strike 2. take over control of treasury and acropolis  chorus: 12 old men and 12 old women  Lysistrata: describes politics in term of wool-work  Demagogues: cater to the whims of the people  Main theme: peace Socrates (470-399 BCE)  Most famous philosopher of the 5 cent. BCE  Sources o Aristophanes’ Clouds “the thinker” o Plato (429-347 BCE)  Most important source  Never took money for teaching  Greek paradox: inner beauty vs. external appearance (really smart but really ugly)  First moral philosopher  Concerned with ethics  Socratic method: cross-examination; question and answer  399 BCE: charged with impiety (believing other gods) and corrupting the youth o Political hostility o Hostility against the Sophists o Hostility against Socrates – a “gadfly” (nasty bug)  Apology: from apologia a speech for the defence o Socrates’ central belief: Supreme Importance of Virtue  Nothing is more important than doing what is right and avoiding doing what is wrong  “the life which is unexamined is not worth living”  Punishment: hemlock  Deeply religious  Would not fall under the city-state but goes what god wants him to do  Never participated in politics o Too honest  People didn’t want him to die Legacy  Virtue is knowledge  No-one does wrong willingly Plato (429-347 BCE)  The Academy (founded the school)  Republic: model society 1. Guardians, act like Spartans (even women, match males expect for strength) (highest class completely educated) 2. Auxiliaries (defend the city) 3. Producers (grew the food/make objects)  Ideal place, no impact on politics Philip II and Alexander  404-371 BCE: Spartan Hegemony (leader)  371-362 BCE: Theban Hegemony o Thebes, Epaminondas, Sacred Band o 371 BCE: Battle of Leuctra; Spartan’s 400 defeated o 362 BCE: Battle of Mantinea; Epaminondas killed Philip II of Macedon  Ruled 359-336 BCE Philip Greatest Achievement (359): his military reforms  Macedonian phala
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