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Lecture 14

AS102 Lecture 14

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Patrick Mc Graw

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Lecture 14 4/8/2013 3:49:00 PM Introduction to the Solar System: The Doppler Effect:  When we observe lies from an astronomical source, for example, all the spectral lines of hydrogen, we can compare them with a reference spectrum from hydrogen gas in the lab.  If the source is moving toward us, the spectral lines will be shifted to higher frequencies (blueshift) compared to the reference spectrum.  If the source is moving away from us, the lines will be shifted to lower frequencies (refshift) What are the main objects in the solar system:  The sun o The sun includes most of the matter in the solar system. o Mostly hydrogen and helium  The planets o Terrestrial planets: (Mercury, venus, earth, mars) are small, rocky, and closer to the sun. o Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) are large, gassy (contain a lot more hydrogen, helium, methane, etc.) and farther from the sun. o Jovian planets also have more moons than the terrestrial planets o Jovian planets all have rings, but saturn’s are the most noticeable. o Order of planets by distance from the sun:  Mercury, venus, mars, Jupiter, satun, Uranus, Neptune.  My very excellent mother just serves us nachos.  Meteoroids, asteroids, comets and dwarf planets. Other parts of the solar system: the asteroid belt:  Asteroid belt is a region at distances approximately 2-4 au from the sun, between the orbits of mars and Jupiter.  Total mass adds up to about 3x10^21 kg, or 4% of the moons mass.  Includes between 7000,000-1,700,000 objects with diameters of 1km or more.  Rocky and metallic, like terrestrial planets, but some also contain water ice.  Actually extremely spread out, not crowded together as in a lot of SF movies.  Largest asteroid: ceres. Other parts of the solar system: the Kuiper Belt:  30-50 au from the sun.  small objects like asteroid belt, but 20-200 times as much mass.  Composed mostly of “ices”: frozen water, methane and ammonia.  Includes pluto and several other dwarf planets Other parts of the solar system: the oort cloud:  2000-50,000 au from the sun (almost 1 ly)  small, icy objects like the Kuiper belt.  Many long-perid comets are believes to come from the oort cloud.  Much less known than other parts of the solar system What about pluto?  Now a dwarf planet.  What is the difference? Some terms:  Planets are large enough (and therefore their gravity is strong enough) to: o Be pulled to a nearly spherical shape b their own gravity. o Clear most other objects out of their orbits.  Dwarf planets: o Large enough to have a spherical shape like planets, but not enough to clear their orbits.  Smaller objects (including most asteroids, comets, meteoroids) have irregular shapes. Notable features of the solar system:  Most of the slar syst
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