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Lecture 6

BI110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Atp Synthase, Electrochemical Gradient, Cellular Respiration

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Matthew Smith

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BI 110: Lecture notes
Electron transport chain:
- Within each protein complex of the ETC, electrons are passed from electron donors to
electron acceptors
- When oxygen accepts electrons at the end of the ETC, it is reduced to form water
Proton transport and ATP synthesis:
- The transport of electrons in complexes 1, 2, and 3 is couples with the transport of
protons across the inner membrane, from the mitochondrial matrix to the inner
membrane space
- ATP synthase uses the electrochemical proton gradient to drive the synthesis of ATP
- Due to the proton pumping of the ETC, protons have high concentration in the
intermembrane space and a low concentration in the mitochondrial matrix. The proton
concentration gradient contains high potential energy
ATP synthase:
- ATP synthase converts the energy of the proton gradient into the energy of ATP
- ATP synthase is a molecular machine that is composed of two subunits F0 and F1
1) The F0 subunit forms a channel that rotate as protons pass through it
2) The F1 subunit then uses this rotational energy to catalyze the synthesis of ATP
- Plants have mitochondria and they carry out respiration in the mitochondria
The flow of energy in cellular respiration:
- Glycolysis
- Pyruvate oxidation
- Citric acid cycle
- ETC and oxidative phosphorylation
ATP yield in cellular respiration:
- Each e- from NADH results in 10 H+ transported across IMM
- Each e- from FADH2 results in 6 H+ transported across IMM
- Production of 1 ATP by ATP synthase required -4H+
- Therefore 1 NADH = -2.5 ATP, 1 FADH2 = -1.5 ATP
- In brown fat tissue uncoupling proteins
- Infants have high about of brown fat tissue and use uncoupling proteins to keep warm
- Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm and other processes occur in the membrane
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