BI110 Lecture Notes - Futile Cycle, Reaction Rate, Regulation A

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In presence of excess substrate, rate of catalysis is proportional to amount of enzyme. Low substrate concentrations: reaction rate slows, enzymes and substrates collide infrequently. High substrate concentrations: enzymes become saturated with reactants, rate of reaction levels off. Enzyme inhibitors are non-substrate molecules that can bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity. Differ in how strongly they bind: reversible: weak, irreversible: strong. Once they bind the enzyme is basically dead because you"ve inhibited the enzyme. Inhibitor itself is actually toxic to the cellx. A futile cycle occurs when two metabolic pathways run simultaneously in opposite directions and have no overall effect other than wasting energy. Enzyme activity is often regulated to meet the needs for reaction products: allosteric regulation and feedback inhibition are important examples. Product of enzyme-catalyzed pathway acts as a regulator of the reaction. Typically, each enzyme has an optimal temperature and ph where it operates at peak efficiency.

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