BI111 Lecture Notes - Pollen Tube, Seedless Fruit, Endosperm

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
Chapter 29 13-03-03 1:59 PM
Sporophyte: diploid spore producing body of a plant. Produced through
fertilization in organism that under go alternation of generations (diploid
sporophyte -> haploid spores and back).
Gameteophyte: Individual of the haploid generation. Produce haploid
gametes by mitosis, male gameteophytes produce sperm and female
gameteophytes produce eggs.
Alternation of generations: diploid spore-producing generation and a
haploid gamete-producing generation.
Monoecious: having both male flowers (which contain only stamens) and
female flowers (which contain only stamens).
Dioecious: having male flowers and female flowers on different plants of
the same species.
Ovary: the base of the carpel that produces one or more ovules.
Ovule: where the egg develops and fertilization occurs
Polar nuclei: the two haploid cells that for the endosperm mother cell. The
endosperm will provide nutrients to the embryo after fertilization.
Self-Incompatability: in plants, the inability of a plant’s pollen to fertilize
ovules of the same plant.
Double fertilization: when the two sperm cells from the pollen gain
(generative cell) travel down the formed pollen tube and fertilize both the
egg and the endosperm.
Endosperm: the polar nuclei cell that is formed, once fertilized, provides
nutrients to the embryo.
Pericarp: the fruit wall.
Cotyledon: a leaf of a seed plant embryo; also known as a seed leaf.
Dormancy: a period in the lifecycle in which biological activity is suspended.
Vegetative Reproduction: asexual reproduction in plants by which new
individuals arise without seeds or spores; fragmentation or plant cuttings.
Totipotent: the ability to develop into any type of cells.
Callus: an undifferentiated tissue that develops on or around a cut plant
surface or in tissue culture.
29.1 Overview of Flowering Plant Reproduction
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an angiosperm zygote develops into an embryo enclosed in a seed
embryo is in sporophyte generation– diploid, spore-producing
male stamen includes the filament and the anther.
Diploid microspore in the anther –> undergoes meiosis
Four microspores are produced and each one develops
29.3 Pollination, Fertilization, and Germination
a. Pollination requires compatible pollen and female tissues.
Pollen and stigma must be genetically different (promoting genetic
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