BI111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Reproductive Isolation, Gene Flow, Ring Species

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22 Jan 2016
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Lecture 7 – Monday January 18, 2016
What is a Species?
Carl Linnaeus
oBinary nomenclature
Genus and species
All the members of a species t under a genus
Nested Hierarchy of Life
Species based on phenotype
What is a Species?
A group of organisms that is biologically “distinct” from others
and evolving along a lineage
oHow distinct?, why is it a group?, and what makes an
organism an “other”?
oA long-standing question, many (>22) possible answers
depends on species concept
What is a Species Concept?
A set of conditions that are necessary and su*cient to identify a
group of individuals as a species
Species concepts do not only dene what a species is, but in
doing so, they also dene what speciation is
Why Do We Need A Species Concept?
Important to many biologists working in the elds of:
oTaxonomy
oEvolutionary biology
oEcological and Behavioural studies
oConservation biology
Morphological Species Concept
Organisms are classied in the same species if they appear
identical by morphological (anatomical) criteria
Species delineations based on notable di1erences in phenotype
oPros
A practical approach that is widely understood by
both scientists and non-scientists
Focuses on novelties that have arisen over time
(diagnostic characters)
Useful for classifying the fossil record
oCons
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