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Lecture 13

BI110 Lecture 13: Biology Note 13 nov 9 (module 22 pt1)

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Matthew Smith

Module 22: Metabolism Chemical reactions aA +bB < - - - > cC +dD - A and B are reactants; C and D are products, and a,b,c,d represents the number of moles - The reaction is reversible, but the actual direction and rate at any one time depends on the energy and on the concentrations of A,B,C and D Energy - Energy: The capacity to do work (it can’t be measured or weighed)  Kinetic energy: Energy of motion  Potential energy: stored energy - Types of energy that are most important in Biology  Light  Heat  Mechanical  Chemical  Electrical/ion gradients (gradients with lots of potential energy in them) - All types of energy can be converted readily from one from to another (This picture shows that this machine converts the potential energy that is released from the wood – when it is burned - and it can charge your phone) Thermodynamics - The study of energy and its transformations - Different types of themodynamic systems  Open systems exchange energy and matter with surroundings, and are most important in biology  Can also have closed and isolated thermodynamic systems - The system can be anything from a cell to an organism to an individual molecules First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy can be transferred and transformed (different types of energy) but not created or destroyed  Conservation of Energy - Total amount of energy in a system and its surroundings remains constant Energy Transformations 3. A water molecule sitting at the top of a waterfall has a defined amount of potential energy, E p 2. As the molecule falls, some of this stored energy is converted to kinetic energy (the energy of motion) E k 1. When the molecule strikes the rock below, its energy of motion is converted to thermal, mechanical, and sound energy. The molecules potential energy is now much lower. The change in potential energy has been transformed into an equal amount of mechanical energy, heat, and sound Second Law of Thermodynamics - Each time energy is transferred or transformed, some is lost (i.e. becomes unavailable to do work)  Energy transfer & transformation are never 100% efficient  What happens to it? – it becomes unavailable to do work and therefore increases the entropy (disorder) of a system - Example: Only 30% of energy in gas is converted into mechanical energy (l
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