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Lecture 16

BI110 Lecture 16: Biology Note 16 (module 24)

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Matthew Smith

Biological Energy Transfer – Module 24 Energy flow in loving systems - Shows how these 2 systems interact; they convert light energy into ATP which is used to do cellular work 1. Photosythesis – light energy is captured and stored in organic molecules 2. Aerobic respiration (cellular respiration) converts energy from bonds in glucose into ATP • ATP then can be used to drive cellular work Organisms that are doing these processes: Photoautotrophic producers: use light energy, carbon, and water to produce organic molecules (and associated energy) through photosynthesis Heterotrophic consumers: acquire organic molecules (an associated energy) from other organisms (eat to get food) 1. Starts by light from the sun – incoming radiant energy is converted into stored chemical energy by producers 2. Photoautotrphs a the bottom – all organisms depends on this  plants/algae/cayano bacteria 3. Heterotrophes  primary/secondary/tertiary Energy Levels of Electrons of an Atom - Energy is contained within chemical bonds - An e- further away from nucleus contains more energy The closer the e- gets to the nucleus, the less energy it has - Different atoms hold onto e- more than others (electronegativity) High electroneg. tend to hold their atoms tight to nucleus therefore less potential energy Low electroneg. tend to not hold their atoms tight to nucleus therefore more potential energy - Do molecules that contain lots of electronegative atoms have more or less potential energy? Less because they would tend to hold onto the e- more tightly.. therefore harder to remove • Oxygen is one of the most electronegative molecules • Carbon and hydrogen have similar elecgronegativities Food as Fuel - Two good fuels: Gasoline and glucose - Electrons in C-H bonds are equidistant from both nuclei (C-H bonds are why glucose has a lot of energy – because they are sharing their electrons equally which makes them high energy bonds ) - Contain high energy and can be easily removed  redox reactions - Gas has more energy than glucose does but the energy is stored in the same type of bond as in glucose - Look like fatty acids whi
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