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Lecture 2

BI110 Lecture 2: Biology Note 2 (Module 2)

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Matthew Smith

Module 2: Energy and Matter The sun converts matter into energy- which we are able to capture and use Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (all living organisms) Energy – the capacity to do work; it takes many forms like: 1. Electromagnetic radiation (what the sun is emitting) -visible light -UV light 2. Chemical energy 3. Kinetic energy (movement) - one form of energy can be converted to another (organism require energy) Electromagnetic Spectrum - all of these different types of electromagnetic waves are being emitted by the sun - The wavelength is inversely proportional to the amount of energy  shorter wavelengths = higher energy  longer wavelengths = lower energy What is Light? - Definition of light: Electromagnetic radiation that humans can detect with their eyes  also a wave od discrete particles called photons (photons have different wavelengths which mean they have different energy levels) - Wavelength: Distance between two successive peaks - To be used, light energy must be absorbed by molecules called pigments Light Interacts with Matter (specifically the pigment molecules of matter) - 3 things that can happen when light encounters matter: 1. The light can be reflected 2. The light can be transmitted 3. The light can be absorbed (so that light can be used) Pigment Structure - Pigment structures share a conjugated system (bond structure)  alternating double/single carbon bonds  delocalization of electrons; they are more spread out which makes them more available to absorb photons of light * focus is on chlorophyll (photosynthesis) because that serves as energy for a lot of things Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll - Colour is the result of wavelengths of light that are NOT absorbed by a pigment - The reason we see chlorophyll as green is because plants do not absorb that green light; it is reflected - There are different energy levels that electrons will sit in; this defines how much energy that electron contains - Ground state = more stable = low energy (electrons want to be here) - These electrons in chlorophyll preferably absorb red or blue because those photons have the right amount of energy - Which has a longer wavelength? Red or Blue light?  Red = longer wavelength = less energy  Blue = shorter wavelength = more energy Light as a Source of Energy Photosynthesis Sustains Almost All Life - Photosynthesis captures electromagnetic energy (from sun) - That energy is stored as chemical energy (sugar) - Cellular respiration releases chemical energy from the sugar (this energy can be used by other things) - Releasing the chemical energy forms Carbon dioxide Photosynthesis turns electromagnetic energy into chemical energy that can be used Producers - Make organic molecules from carbon dioxide (CO2)  Photosynthesis: light is the energy source  Chemosynthesis: inorganic chemical reaction are energy source - Plants capture light energy and transform it into chemical energy through photosynthesis Photosynthesis Reaction: Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy  Organic molecules + Oxygen Organic Molecules = fatty acids/sucrose/cellulose/ ect. ** Organic molecules store chemical energy – this energy is stored in the bonds** Consumers - Eat to acquire organic molecules (humans) - Use cellular respiration to extract energy from organic molecules; this process converts organic molecules back to carbon dioxide - Include animals and some protists and bacteria Producers, Consumers, Decomposers, interact to form an ecosystem. Small
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