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Lecture 17

BI110 Lecture 17: Biology Note 17 (module 25)

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Matthew Smith

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Module 25: Cellular Respiration I – Digestion & Glycolysis Equation - Multiply step process - Aerobic respiration process (bc of the oxygen) 1. Glucose = reactant 2. Oxygen = reactant  primary substrates 1. Carbon dioxide and water = product 2. ATP = product Glucose is combusting (burning glucose)  giving up all of its energy (Exergonic reaction) Cellular respiration instead of losing all energy (in form of heat), it allows for the energy to be used for other processes  it represents a series of reaction in which an organic carbon substrate molecule is oxidized Cellular Respiration is Controlled Combustion - Same picture as above (the overall deltaG is the same – wouldn’t change) Substrate level phosphorylation - Catalyzed by individual enzymes - ADP  phosphoylated by a kinase enzyme  to create ATP Oxidative phosphoryalion - Most of the oxygen is made this way (in cellular respiration) Stages of cellular respiration: 1) Glycolysis  where glucose (or other high energy molecules) enters cellular respiration (gets oxidized)  ATP produced  takes place in the cytosol 2a) Pyruvate oxidation takes place in mitochondrial matrix 2b) Citric acid cycle  ATP produced  takes place in mitochondrial matrix 3) Oxidative phosphorylation  CO2 is produced from this process  Most ATP is produced here  takes place in inner mitochondrial membrane Energy and nutrient acquisition: - Transfer of chemical energy from various sources into cellular respiration pathways - Lipids contain more energy than carbohydrates because there is more hydrogen bonds - This figure emphasizes cellular context  shows how the different steps takes place in different part of the cell - This is a eukaryotic cell with mitochondria - What about prokaryotic without mitochondria? Where do the other process take place then? They still do respiration but just all in the cytosol Glycolysis Overview - Universal (every single organisms does gylcolysis) , ancient pathway (occur in the absence of oxygen) - Does not require O2 - Occurs in the cytosol - Glucose (6 carbons) oxidized into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 carbons each) - Electrons removed are delivered to NAD+ producing NADH - Each glucose molecule oxidized produces  2ATP  2NADH  2Pyruvate Glycolysis: breaks down (oxidizes) gluco
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