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Chapter 3 Summary Notes Complete summary of chapter 3, including all topics covered in lecture in depth, with definitions, and explanations. Cuts all the excess fluff in the textbook, straight to the point biology

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Diane Williams

BI110CHAPTER 331 Biodiversitymeasured as the umber of species of organismsreflects the reality that life on Earth exists from the ocean floor to well into the atmospherecellmulticellular organismpopulation all same species same areacommunity populations in same areaecosystem group of communities interacting in shared environmentbiosphere all regions of earths crust waters and atmosphere that sustains lifewhen grouping organisms consider how organisms obtain carbon because it is the backbone of all organic molecules synthesized by an organismHeterotrophs obtain carbon from organic molecules either from living hosts or from organic molecules in the products wastes or remains of dead organisms Autotrophs synthesize organic carbon molecules using inorganic carbon CO2Chemotrophs obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic or organic substances chemoautotrops found in some bacteria and archaeans not found in eukaryotes Chemoherterotrophs found in some bacteria and archaeans and also in protists fungi animals and plantsPhototrophs obtain energy from light Photoautotrops found in some photosynthetic bacteria in some protists and in plants Photoheterotrophs found in some photosynthetic bacteria32 SelectionSelection occurs when some force or phenomenon affects the survival of individual organismsselection occurs when a large population if individuals is exposed to a lethal factor and only resistant individuals survive to reproducethe key factors behind selection are a selective force pressure and the capacity for explosive population growth as well as an inheritable trait or genetic variation33 Evolutiona gradual change in the characteristics of a population of organisms over time can be the result of selectionall organisms alive today descended from a common ancestorexplains why all organisms share features such as the use of adenosine triphosphate ATP as a cellular energy source DNA as a genetic material and plasma membranes composed of lipid bilayersDarwins Theory Summaryindividual organisms in a population vary in many heritable traits
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