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Lecture 10

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Matthew Smith

 Thermodynamics o Study of energy and its transformations  2 types: kinetic and potential o 1st law  Energy can be transformed; not created/destroyed o 2nd Law  Total disorder (entropy) of system and its surroundings always increases  Entropy is measure of disorder  Energy content and entropy contribute to making a reaction spontaneous o Spontaneous reaction  Occur w/o input of energy from surroundings  Spontaneous doesn't mean fast o Reactions tend to be spontaneous if products have less potential energy than reactants  Enthalpy (H) --> potential energy in system (total amt. of energy in system) o Reactions tend to be spontaneous when products are less ordered than reactants  Entropy (S) --> amount/randomness of disorder  Potential Energy of Products and Reactants o Endothermic reactions  Absorption of energy (products have more potential energy than reactants) o Exothermic reactions  Release of energy (reactants have more potential energy than products)  Ex. Complete combustion is a spontaneous, exothermic reaction  CH4+ 2O 2-> CO +22H O 2  A Spontaneous Endothermic Reaction o Ex. Melting of ice  Melting of ice increases entropy  Phase changes result in increase in entropy  Solid --> liquid --> gas  Liquid has more entropy than solid; gas has more entropy than liquid  Free Energy (delta G) o deltaG = deltaH - (temp*deltaS) o Spontaneous reaction: deltaG < 0  Clicker question answer:  The entropy of water increases as it turns form a liquid into a gas.  The entropy of the universe always increases o Systems w/ high free energy are le
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