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BI 110 CHAPTER 6 October 30.doc

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Matthew Smith

CHAPTER 6 Cellular respiration Energy level s of electrons of an Atom: - Chemical bond: sharing of electrons - Electrons exist in district surrounds of orbitals. - Higher energy state- further away from the nucleus. - Electro negativity: more electronegative tends to hold the electron closer to the atomic nucleus. – contains less energy. Food as Fuel - 2 god fuels: Gasoline and glucose - Glucose: Lots of potential energy • Electrons in C-H bonds are equidistant from both nuclei - ^ good for respiration , C-H bonds- contains high energy- can be easily removed - O highly electronegative- less energy- hard to remove - Lipids have more energy than glucose. - Fatty acids- more potential energy than glucose – but hydrophobic - Fatty acids used as energy for organisms. Redox reaction: - Reduction-Oxidation Reactions (always coupled) - OIL RIG - Oxidation reaction – for respiration - Oxidation of one thing is always reduction of something else. - Transfer electrons from donor to acceptor atoms - Electrons lose energy as they pass from donor to acceptor molecule. - Electrons are accompanied by one or more electrons.- usually protons accompany the electrons - Donor become oxidized as it releases electrons - Oxygen is very often an electron acceptor Oxygen is being reduced. Redox reactions can involve a change in the degree of electron “sharing” Cellular respiration - Metabolic process that organisms use to obtain energy by oxidizing molecules. - Energy is released during oxidations – captured in ATP - C6H12O6+6O2+32ADP+32Pi 6H20+6CO2+32ATP Cellular respiration is controlled combustion: - Energy to be extract from glucose molecule at a time. - At body temperature most of the steps are spontaneous. - Each one of the steps requires enzymes to catalyse the process. - Delta G is the same- just the way to get there is different. (graph) Electron carrier NAD+ (most common carrier) - Nicotinamide adenine diphosphate - NAD+ become reduced NADH (H is the hydrogen) - NAD
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