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Louise Dawe

Biology November 11, 2013 Control of Cellular Respiration - Allosteric control of glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase o High ATP  inhibit o High Citrate (from citric acid cycle)  inhibit o High AMP (i.e. lowATP)  activate Oxidation of Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins - CoAfunnels products of many oxidative pathways into citric acid cycle - Many reactions are reversible o Intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle also diverted & used as substrates for anabolic pathways (p. 130-131) - Fatty acid part of fats has more energy per unit of weight than glucose Dependency Upon Presence of Oxygen - Aerobic respiration because oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor - We need oxygen in order to makeATP - Reality is that some organisms and some tissues (specific cell types) can makeATP even in the absence of oxygen - ATP can be made in absence of oxygen o Fermentation  Once pyruvate made in glycolysis, if oxygen is not present, the pyruvate never enters the citric acid cycle, it will stay in cytoplasm so fermentation is the process that is used  Comes in 2 types • Lactate fermentation o Occurs in a lot of bacteria, plants and some animal tissues
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