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Chptr 29 BI 111

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Tristan Long

Chapter 29 13-03-03 1:59 PM Sporophyte: diploid spore producing body of a plant. Produced through fertilization in organism that under go alternation of generations (diploid sporophyte -> haploid spores and back). Gameteophyte: Individual of the haploid generation. Produce haploid gametes by mitosis, male gameteophytes produce sperm and female gameteophytes produce eggs. Alternation of generations: diploid spore-producing generation and a haploid gamete-producing generation. Monoecious: having both male flowers (which contain only stamens) and female flowers (which contain only stamens). Dioecious: having male flowers and female flowers on different plants of the same species. Ovary: the base of the carpel that produces one or more ovules. Ovule: where the egg develops and fertilization occurs Polar nuclei: the two haploid cells that for the endosperm mother cell. The endosperm will provide nutrients to the embryo after fertilization. Self-Incompatability: in plants, the inability of a plant’s pollen to fertilize ovules of the same plant. Double fertilization: when the two sperm cells from the pollen gain (generative cell) travel down the formed pollen tube and fertilize both the egg and the endosperm. Endosperm: the polar nuclei cell that is formed, once fertilized, provides nutrients to the embryo. Pericarp: the fruit wall. Cotyledon: a leaf of a seed plant embryo; also known as a seed leaf. Dormancy: a period in the lifecycle in which biological activity is suspended. Vegetative Reproduction: asexual reproduction in plants by which new individuals arise without seeds or spores; fragmentation or plant cuttings. Totipotent: the ability to develop into any type of cells. Callus: an undifferentiated tissue that develops on or around a cut plant surface or in tissue culture. 29.1 Overview of Flowering Plant Reproduction ⋅ an angiosperm zygote develops into an embryo enclosed in a seed • embryo is in sporophyte generation– diploid, spore-producing ⋅ male stamen includes the filament and the anther. • Diploid microspore in the anther –> undergoes meiosis • Four microspores are produced and each one develops *video 29.3 Pollination, Fertilization, and Germination a. Pollination requires compatible pollen and female tissues. • Pollen and stigma must be genetically different (promoting genetic variation) • If they are from the same plant, fertilization will not occur b/c they are chemically incompatible • If for whatever reason, they do pollinate, the growth of the pollen tube will be altered o May not be long enough o Fruit may fall off • The plant can tell if they are genetically incompatible if both the pollen and stigma have the “self-allele” – “S” allele • Cross pollination is favorable. b. Double fertilization results in the formation of embryos and endosperm • Double fertilization is only observed in flowering plants • 1 sperm fuses with the egg= diploid (2n) zygote • 1 sperm fuses with the central cell=triploid (3n) nucleus o 3n nucleus becomes the endosperm o endosperm offers nourishment for the embryo o it is inside the seeds of flowering plants c. After fertilization, ovaries develop into fruits that protect seeds and aid seed dispersal. • Fruit is a ripened/mature ovary • Parthenocarpy- plants produce fruit w/out fertilization and therefore without seeds. o Fruit ripening is stimulated by hormones released by the sperm cells and the seed after fertilization o It can be stimulate (by scientists) to produce seedless fruit. • Fruit is classified as either fleshy or dry • Simple fruit: cherries, peaches; forms from one ovary, and one seed • Aggregate Friut: form from single flowers with multiple carpels
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