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BI276 lecture 2.docx

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Hany Anany

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BI276: Microbes Lecture 2 • Colony-one cell started to divide, to develop this colony. • Lake sample (a) sewage sample(b) sulfur (c) • Pathways of discovery in microbiology o Robert Hooke- 1664 – discovery of microorganisms (fungi)  First to describe microbe  Illustrated the fruiting structures of molds o Antoni van Leeuwenhoek  First to describe bacteria  Drew some structures of bacteria o Louis Pasteur  Chemist, who discovered that living organisms discriminate between optical isomers.  Pasteur’s Experiment: theory of spontaneous generation • Pasteur’s swan-necked flask experiment, which allowed air to contact the broth. Microbes present in the dust were not able to navigate to the tortuous bends in the neck of the flasks. • Spontaneous generation is the hypothesis that some vital force contained in or given to organic matter can create living organisms from inanimate objects  Each microbe has different needs for nutrients  Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process(originally thought to be purely chemical) • Led to the development of methods controlling the growth of microorganisms( aseptic technique)  Developed vaccines for anthax, cholera, and rabies o Robert Koch  Demonstrated the link between microbes and infectious diseases  Identified causative agents of anthrax and tuberculosis  Developed techniques(solid media) for obtaining pure cultures of microbes, some still in existence today  Awarded nobel prize for physiology and medicine in 1905  Koch’s postulates • The suspected pathogen must be present in all cases if the disease and absent from healthy animals: microscopy, staining. o In the diseased animal: red blood cell, and suspected
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