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Lecture 2

BI459 Lecture 2: BI459 Exam Review - Lecture 2

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Lecture 1: Overview of Endocrinology Cell: Basic element of living organism Tissues: Group of cells having same functions Organs: Functional units composed of tissues Systems: Group of organs with related functions Secretion vs. Excretion - Both are involved in the passage or movement of materials - Both involved in homeostasis Excretion: removal of material from a living thing Secretion: movement of materials (that can be metabolized and used by our bodies) from one point to another  hormones Endocrine vs Exocrine Glands Gland: organ that releases certain substances for use in the body or for discharge into surroundings Endocrine: separated from the surface (no ducts); secretions usually transported via circulatory system Exocrine: maintain connection to surface; secretions empty to surface through ducts Cellular Patterns of Secretion Endocrine: Secretion into the blood for transport internally to target tissues  hormones Exocrine: Secretion into a duct that opens onto an external or internal surface  sweat, saliva Merocrine: Secretion without visible damage to the secretory cell (involves exocytosis)  peptide hormones Apocrine: Release by sloughing of “outer” or apical portion of secretory cell  mammary gland Holocrine: Release through cell death and lysis  sebaceous gland secretion Cytogenous: Release of whole, viable cells  spermatozoa Endocrinology: The study of endocrine glands/tissues and their products (hormones) Hormone: A chemical signal/messenger synthesized by an endocrine organ (gland) or tissue Hormone:  secreted in the bloodstream to act on specific target cells and elicit a specific physiological response - Water-soluble via EXOCYTOSIS VESICLES - Lipid-soluble via DIFFUSION (SIMPLE OR FACILITATED) Endocrine System – General Organization - Includes a number of different cells, tissues and organs - Components are functionally related - Synthesizes and secretes hormones that regulate, coordinate and integrate functions of target cells o Most cases long distance targets - Not ALL vertebrates have the same glands/endocrine tissues o Ex. Mammals  Glands: PITUITARY, THYROID, PARATHYROID, ADRENAL, PINEAL  Tissues: HYPTHALAMUS, THYMUS, PANCREAS, GONADS, KIDNEYS, STOMACH, LIVER, SMALL INTESTINE, ADIPOSE TISSUE Cellular Organization/Arrangement Cords: linear arrangement  pituitary gland, adrenal cortex Follicles:
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