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Lecture 11

BI459 Lecture 11: BI459 Exam Review - Lecture 11

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Lecture 11: Reproduction Part I Reproduction Overview - Reproduction is influenced by environmental variables that are perceived and integrated by the central nervous system - Communication between endocrine and nervous system via the HPG axis o Coordination of specific gonadal events through regulation by circulating gonadotropins (FSH & LH)  FSH  control of gametogenesis (oogenesis in females and spermatogenesis in males)  LH  mainly responsible for controlling androgen synthesis as well as release of gametes in both sexes - The gonadal axis is modified by other systems, especially the HPT and the HPA axes Sexual Differentiation - Genetic vs. Environmental - Involves development of genital system o Gonads (gametes, endocrine function) o Sexual Duct Systems o External Genitalia o (At Puberty) Secondary Sexual Characteristics such as Breast Development and Hair Patterns - Environmental factors may affect/override genetic gender - Male phenotype involves hormones produced by testis - Female phenotype develops in the absence of these male influences AND required the expression of specific genes o Active expression Male Reproductive System - Components o Testes (sex hormones, gametogenesis) o Ducts o Accessory Glands o External Genitalia (Penis + Scrotum) - Functions o Production of spermatozoa by spermatogenesis o (Endocrine) Production of Androgens (Male Sex Hormones) Testis – Sertoli Cells - Support and nourish cells of seminiferous tubule – forms blood testis barrier - No vasculature inside tubule so Sertoli cells transport nutrients to luminal region - Phagocytose cast-off cytoplasmic droplets from spermatids - Secrete fluid into lumen that helps sperm flow in tubules - Exocrine: secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) - Endocrine: secretes inhibin + Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIH) Leydig Cells - Found in testes  between seminiferous tubules th - Become recognizable during the 8 week and soon begin to synthesize androgenic hormones  testosterone a
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