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Lecture 7

BI459 Lecture 7: BI459 Exam Review - Lecture 7

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Lecture 7: Adrenal Glands Adrenal Gland - Paired glands located at cranial pole of each kidney - Histological regions o Cortex = outer region  Origin  mesoderm  Produce steroids hormones o Medulla = inner region  Origin neuroectoderm (neural crest)  Produce catecholamines  epinephrine, norepinephrine Structural/Functional Zones of Adrenal Glands - Cells produce steroid hormones o Large amounts of smooth ER o Lipid droplets - ZONA GLOMERULOSA  mineralcorticoids o Aldosterone; reabsorption of Na+ and Water in Kidney - ZONA FASCICULARIS  glucocorticoids o Cortisol: carbohydrates, protein & lipid metabolism o Stress response, regulation of immune system f(x) - ZONA RETICULARIS  glucocorticoids & sex hormones Adrenal Medulla - Neuroendocrine tissue - Composed of postganglionic sympathetic nervous system neurons  modified ANS ganglion - Anastomosing cords of chromaffin cells o Secrete catecholamines Structural Organization of the Nervous System Nervous System Peripheral Central Nervous Nervous System System Lecture 7: Adrenal Glands Autonomic Somatic Brain Spinal Cord Nervous System Nervous System Sympathetic Parasympathetic Enteric Nervous Nervous System Nervous System System Control of Adrenal Medulla Function Main Glucocorticoid Actions 1. Main function  maintain glucose concentrations in blood o i.e. conserve glucose-derived energy  stimulation of gluconeogensis, particularly in the liver  mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues (e.g. muscle) substrates for gluconeogenesis  Inhibition of glucoses uptake in muscle and adipose tissue  stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue o BRAIN HAS PREFERENTIAL ACCESS TO BLOOD GLUCOSE DURING STRESS 2. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties o Frequently used as drugs to treat inflammatory conditions (arthritis or dermatitis) and autoimmune diseases Lecture 7: Adrenal Glands Pattern of Corticotropin (ACTH) and Cortisol Secretion - Regulated by negative feedback loop  pulsatile secretion of cortisol - Basal activity of HPA axis under circadian regulation and stimulated by stressors - Typically, pulse amplitude and frequency are highest in the morning
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