BU111 Lecture Notes - Victor Vroom, Clinical Psychology, Belongingness

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
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L12 BU111 12/10/2011
Motivation
The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards the achievement of a goal,
conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
Common Misconceptions Regarding Motivation
Motivation is a personality trait
oSome people have it, others do not
oInstead, motivation is the result of a complex interaction between the
individual and the situation
Motivation is something that can be “externally” applied
oParent says “I’m going to motivate my child to do better in school”
oJim says “I’m going to motivate my BU111 students to do well in the
course
oAll are assuming a power which they do not possess
oInstead, motivation “comes from within an individual” in that a person
motivates themselves
oAll that a manager can control is the situation or environment in which the
person operates
oCan create an environment in which people will choose to motivate
themselves in order to satisfy certain needs that they possess (see
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and
Herzberg’s Motivation Factors)
Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
I. American clinical psychologist in 1950’s, didn’t become popular until the
60’s and 70’s
II. Deprivationalist Deprivation model of behaviour (unsatisfied need)
Whenever we have an unsatisfied need, it will lead to tension or
discomfort that will be either overt (obvious) or covert
(unidentifiable)
This discomfort or tension leads to behaviour which attempts to
reduce or eliminate the tension or discomfort
If the behaviour is successful, we have a satisfied need
III. Most human behaviour can be explained under 5 basic needs:
Self-
Actualization
Physiologic
Safety (security)
Belongingness
Ego Status
(esteem)
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L12 BU111 12/10/2011
IV.
V. Some on the job counterparts of this theory are:
Physiologic: Nothing, needs are already satisfied
Safety: Salary, Fringe Benefits etc…
Belonging: appreciated, understood, accepted by others (company
teams, etc…)
Ego Status: succeed, achieve, need to be recognized (promotion,
salary increase, bringing someone in to hear their opinion on an
idea, make them feel recognized, give interesting work
assignments, company perks etc…)
Self-actualization: becoming everything you choose to become
and everything that you are capable becoming (achieve full
potential)
VI. Hierarchy provides us with a simple and convenient way to categorize
people’s needs
VII. Challenge of motivating people is that there is no universal
plan that will work to motivate everyone, because people are different
VIII. Most people in Canada have the bottom two needs well
satisfied, and giving someone more of a need that is already satisfied
will change nothing
Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory
asked the basic questions that we ask ourselves to decide how much effort to put
in (very personal and simple)
either receiving a reward or punishment for behaviour or lack there of
I. can I do it?
No- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)
training (lack of knowledge or skills)
coaching (work with them, show them how)
Yes- High Motivation, move on to next question
II. Do I know the rewards/punishments?
No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)
tell them that if you do this, you get that
Yes? - High Motivation, move on to next question
III.Are the rewards/punishments personally meaningful?
No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)
change work environment to make it meaningful for them
Yes? - High Motivation, move on to next question
IV. Will the reward/punishment follow performance?
No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)
validate employee's input and performance/achievements
Yes? - High Motivation
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Document Summary

The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards the achievement of a goal, conditioned by the effort"s ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation is a personality trait: some people have it, others do not, instead, motivation is the result of a complex interaction between the individual and the situation. Maslow"s hierarchy of needs, vroom"s expectancy theory, and. 60"s and 70"s: american clinical psychologist in 1950"s, didn"t become popular until the. If the behaviour is successful, we have a satisfied need. Most human behaviour can be explained under 5 basic needs: Vi. hierarchy provides us with a simple and convenient way to categorize people"s needs. Challenge of motivating people is that there is no universal plan that will work to motivate everyone, because people are different. Most people in canada have the bottom two needs well satisfied, and giving someone more of a need that is already satisfied will change nothing.

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