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Management - Motivation Everything pertaining to motivation and management strategies. Includes diagrams, charts and other figures. different motivational theories included

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Jim Mc Cutcheon

L12 BU111 12/10/2011 Motivation The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards the achievement of a goal, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need Common Misconceptions Regarding Motivation  Motivation is a personality trait o Some people have it, others do not o Instead, motivation is the result of a complex interaction between the individual and the situation  Motivation is something that can be “externally” applied o Parent says “I’m going to motivate my child to do better in school” o Jim says “I’m going to motivate my BU111 students to do well in the course o All are assuming a power which they do not possess o Instead, motivation “comes from within an individual” in that a person motivates themselves o All that a manager can control is the situation or environment in which the person operates o Can create an environment in which people will choose to motivate themselves in order to satisfy certain needs that they possess (see Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, and Herzberg’s Motivation Factors) Theories of Motivation  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs I. American clinical psychologist in 1950’s, didn’t become popular until the 60’s and 70’s II. Deprivationalist Deprivation model of behaviour (unsatisfied need) • Whenever we have an unsatisfied need, it will lead to tension or discomfort that will be either overt (obvious) or covert (unidentifiable) • This discomfort or tension leads to behaviour which attempts to reduce or eliminate the tension or discomfort • If the behaviour is successful, we have a satisfied need III. Most human behaviour can be explained under 5 basic needs: Self- Actualization Ego Status (esteem) Belongingness Safety (security) Physiologic L12 BU111 12/10/2011 IV. V. Some on the job counterparts of this theory are: • Physiologic: Nothing, needs are already satisfied • Safety: Salary, Fringe Benefits etc… • Belonging: appreciated, understood, accepted by others (company teams, etc…) • Ego Status: succeed, achieve, need to be recognized (promotion, salary increase, bringing someone in to hear their opinion on an idea, make them feel recognized, give interesting work assignments, company perks etc…) • Self-actualization: becoming everything you choose to become and everything that you are capable becoming (achieve full potential) VI.Hierarchy provides us with a simple and convenient way to categorize people’s needs VII. Challenge of motivating people is that there is no universal plan that will work to motivate everyone, because people are different VIII. Most people in Canada have the bottom two needs well satisfied, and giving someone more of a need that is already satisfied will change nothing Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory  asked the basic questions that we ask ourselves to decide how much effort to put in (very personal and simple)  either receiving a reward or punishment for behaviour or lack there of I. can I do it? • No- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)  training (lack of knowledge or skills)  coaching (work with them, show them how) • Yes- High Motivation, move on to next question II. Do I know the rewards/punishments? • No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)  tell them that if you do this, you get that • Yes? - High Motivation, move on to next question III.Are the rewards/punishments personally meaningful? • No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)  change work environment to make it meaningful for them • Yes? - High Motivation, move on to next question IV.Will the reward/punishment follow performance? • No?- requires managerial intervention (low motivation)  validate employee's input and performance/achievements • Yes? - High Motivation L12 BU111 12/10/2011 Frederick Herzberg's Two Factor Theory  most influential theory to date
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