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Critical Thinking Jan 28.docx

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Roopa Reddy

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Critical Thinking Critical Thinking - Understand and analyzing what we are learning about - Frame of mind – strategies to review whether or not to believe what we read or hear - Improves arguments - more effective communication CLAIMS - What is the writer to convince me of? - There are cues and indicator words – in summary, etc. - Uncontested Claims – claims you will just accept – you don’t need more information to believe it o 4 conditions (pg. 158) where you accept claims without a challenge 1. Consistent with your own experience and observation 2. Fact – that is independent of some ones opinion 3. When there is agreement among experts – range of consensus 4. If it is a technical or mathematical claim - Contested Claims – needing evidence and proof to believe what is being said o Examine and evaluate the evidence given to justify the claim - Application: be clear with ideas, use visuals, ‘don’t beat around the bush’ o Don’t bury the lead (newspaper articles do this) o Use cue words o Headings and subheadings - Role of a claim: trying to persuade you to believe what they are saying EVIDENCE - Examples of evidence: stats, anecdotes, etc. - Cue words/indicators words e.g. because, as a result, studies show, etc. - Argument = claim + evidence - 1 thing to have evidence but its another to have strong and quality evidence o Accuracy – is it accurate o Precision – how precise is the evidence – is it exact numbers? (numbers, quotes, etc.) o Sufficiency – is there enough evidence – more than 1 study is needed o Representativeness – using a sample that represents who you are speaking on behalf of (representative sample) o Authority – credibility, are they experts, can you believe what they are saying and representing o Clarity – be clear with your evidence, directly state the evidence - Application: clearly state the meaning of the evidence – explain why you need to care about the evidence – reference and explain it in your writing - Treat your evidence as a claim - Present arguments in form of claim and supporting evidence UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS - The logical link between your claim and your evidence - Not stated o E.
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