BU121 Lecture Notes - Soundness

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Published on 30 Jan 2013
School
Department
Course
Professor
Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking
- Understand and analyzing what we are learning about
- Frame of mind strategies to review whether or not to believe what we read or hear
- Improves arguments
- more effective communication
CLAIMS
- What is the writer to convince me of?
- There are cues and indicator words in summary, etc.
- Uncontested Claims claims you will just accept you don’t need more information to believe it
o 4 conditions (pg. 158) where you accept claims without a challenge
1. Consistent with your own experience and observation
2. Fact that is independent of some ones opinion
3. When there is agreement among experts range of consensus
4. If it is a technical or mathematical claim
- Contested Claims needing evidence and proof to believe what is being said
o Examine and evaluate the evidence given to justify the claim
- Application: be clear with ideas, use visuals, ‘don’t beat around the bush’
o Don’t bury the lead (newspaper articles do this)
o Use cue words
o Headings and subheadings
- Role of a claim: trying to persuade you to believe what they are saying
EVIDENCE
- Examples of evidence: stats, anecdotes, etc.
- Cue words/indicators words e.g. because, as a result, studies show, etc.
- Argument = claim + evidence
- 1 thing to have evidence but its another to have strong and quality evidence
o Accuracy is it accurate
o Precision how precise is the evidence is it exact numbers? (numbers, quotes, etc.)
o Sufficiency is there enough evidence more than 1 study is needed
o Representativeness using a sample that represents who you are speaking on behalf of
(representative sample)
o Authority credibility, are they experts, can you believe what they are saying and
representing
o Clarity be clear with your evidence, directly state the evidence
- Application: clearly state the meaning of the evidence explain why you need to care about the
evidence reference and explain it in your writing
- Treat your evidence as a claim
- Present arguments in form of claim and supporting evidence
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