- Understand and analyzing what we are learning about
- Frame of mind – strategies to review whether or not to believe what we read or hear
- Improves arguments
- more effective communication
- What is the writer to convince me of?
- There are cues and indicator words – in summary, etc.
- Uncontested Claims – claims you will just accept – you don’t need more information to believe it
o 4 conditions (pg. 158) where you accept claims without a challenge
1. Consistent with your own experience and observation
2. Fact – that is independent of some ones opinion
3. When there is agreement among experts – range of consensus
4. If it is a technical or mathematical claim
- Contested Claims – needing evidence and proof to believe what is being said
o Examine and evaluate the evidence given to justify the claim
- Application: be clear with ideas, use visuals, ‘don’t beat around the bush’
o Don’t bury the lead (newspaper articles do this)
o Use cue words
o Headings and subheadings
- Role of a claim: trying to persuade you to believe what they are saying
- Examples of evidence: stats, anecdotes, etc.
- Cue words/indicators words e.g. because, as a result, studies show, etc.
- Argument = claim + evidence
- 1 thing to have evidence but its another to have strong and quality evidence
o Accuracy – is it accurate
o Precision – how precise is the evidence – is it exact numbers? (numbers, quotes, etc.)
o Sufficiency – is there enough evidence – more than 1 study is needed
o Representativeness – using a sample that represents who you are speaking on behalf of
o Authority – credibility, are they experts, can you believe what they are saying and
o Clarity – be clear with your evidence, directly state the evidence
- Application: clearly state the meaning of the evidence – explain why you need to care about the
evidence – reference and explain it in your writing
- Treat your evidence as a claim
- Present arguments in form of claim and supporting evidence