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Wilfrid Laurier University
Connell Mc Cluskey

Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 BU 121 Final Exam Basic Final Exam Review Guide NEGOTIATING What is negotiation? - The ongoing process through which two or more parties, whore positions are not necessarily consistent, work in an effort to reach an agreement “Negotiaphobia” – disease of attitude and skill deficiency - Many people see negotiations as an act of combat or conflict Three-Step EASY treatment Process Engage - Recognize you are in a negotiation and quickly review the viable strategies Assess - Evaluate your tendency to use each of the negotiation strategies, as well as the tendencies of the other side Strategize - Select the proper strategy for this particular negotiation You’re One Minute Drill - Each time you begin a negotiation situation, take a minute to review the 3 steps Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument - Late in the negotiation process after legitimate strategies fully used - When only a small gap remains on one issue - Always directly tied to an agreement 1 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (5 Basic Negotiating strategies) Nine of the four strategies are universally applicable or appropriate Avoidance - Minimal issue o Recognize it may grow in importance o Do it in way that demonstrates investment in relationship - Superior option readily available elsewhere o Objections are a sign of interests Accommodation - In significantly weaker bargaining position – no leverage o Can improve leverage with knowledge - How you accommodate is as important as when o “this time around we would be willing to consider” and don’t make excuses Compromising - Late in the negotiation process after legitimate strategies fully used - when only a small gap remains on one issue - always directly tied to an agreement 2 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Competition - opponent not inclined or capable of collaborating o need senior players to get at true needs - Not worth the effort o Be careful to look for true potential of negotiation Collaboration - When situation present a significant opportunity with capable and willing decision- makers on all sides o Win-win-win o 80/20 rule - Requires preparation, need identification, and candor – trust - Internal collaboration is prerequisite for external collaboration Negotiation Strategy Matrix Competition Collaboration Win/Lose Win/Win Avoidance Accommodation Lose/Lose Lose/Win 3 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 2 categories of collaborators Sages - Recognize the opportunity to cooperate, they can naturally collaborate Dreamers - Think they can collaborate all the time, but are not effective at it 4 Basic interaction styles – similar to DISC - Peace of information exchange - Focus on tasks or relationships o Drivers (D) o Expressives (E) o Amiables (S) o Analyticals (C) Drivers Expressives Analyticals Amiables 4 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Principled Negotiations - Typical negotiations are ‘positional’ o People state their positions – what they want o Strategy is ‘distributive’  Competing, compromising, or accommodating Principled Negotiations - An ‘interactive’/collaborative strategy - Produce a wise agreement - Efficiently - And amicably 4 Basic Points - Separate the people from the problem - Focus on interests not positions - Generate a variety of options before deciding what to do - Insist that the result be based on objective criteria 5 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 OPERATIONS AND SUSTAINABILITY Services vs. Manufacturing Both transform “raw material” into finished good - Raw materials in person with unsatisfied need or possession that requires care - Service is performed not produced - Focus on process as well as outcome o Judges on quality of work and service - Characteristics are different o Intangible – experience key, customized, can’t be stored - Customer is part of process o Extent of contract contact affects operations Manufacturing - Set capacity slightly ahead of demand o In short term turn away customers or outsource at lower margins - Seasonality – shift demand and capacity requirements by pricing Service - Low contact – set capacity to average demand - High contact – set capacity at peak demand Mass Productions vs. Mass Customization Mass production technology - Stable market conditions - Efficiency vs. effectiveness - Repetition New economic reality - Constant change - Customer-driven - Customization and innovation 6 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Sustainability Measured by the Triple Bottom Line – Andy Savatz - Profit/Environment/Society – People/Planet/Profit - “sustainability sweet spot” – place where corporate and societal interests intersect – a new way to measure the bottom line Sustainable Operations - The next industrial revolution - Ways to weave sustainability into operations: o Product design  “cradle to cradle” design  Biomimicry o Product Stewardship o Sustainability through servicing o Sustainability of the supply chain Cradle – to – Cradle Design Take – make – waste model – Cradle to Grave design - Eco-efficient – “less bad” – 3R’s Design Eco-effective design on nature’s design principles - “waste equals food” – Cradle to Cradle design - Products developed for close-loop system o Every output is safe and beneficial o Biological or technical nutrients - Eliminate the concept of waste C2C developed by William McDonough and Michael Braungart – MBDC – firm started in 1995 consults and certifies C2C production Biomimicry - Sustainable innovation inspired by nature – “biologically inspired engineering” - Based NOT on what we can extract from organisms and ecosystems (harvesting or domestication), but what we can learn from them 7 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Product Stewardship - The responsibility and ethical management of the health, safety, and environmental aspects of a product throughout its total life cycle - The concept of extended producer responsibility – accounting for the impact of a product during use and after disposal Sustainability through Servicing - Increased efficiency and creation of environmentally benign products and processes necessary but not sufficient - Gains may eventually be counteracted by increases in consumption - Changes business model from selling products to providing services o Turn demand for reduced material use into a strategic opportunity o Services more difficult to imitate – competitive advantage - Xerox o 1994 – became “the document company” – help companies improve efficiencies in document-intensive business processes Sustainability of the Supply Chain - “a network of facilities that produce raw materials, transform them into intermediate goods and then final products, and deliver the products to customers through a distribution system” - “management of raw materials and services from suppliers to manufacturers/service provider to customers and back with improvement of the social and environmental impacts explicitly considered” - Outsourcing business operations doesn’t mean outsourcing responsibilities or risks in today’s global economy – sustainable supply chain management is key to the integrity of the brand Timberland - If you are going to design carbon out of a product, you have to understand every place in the life cycle that carbon comes in Greenwashing - The act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices off a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service 8 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 The Six Sins 1. The sin of hidden-trade off 2. The sin of vagueness 3. The sin of fibbing 4. The sin of no proof 5. The sin of lesser of two evils 6. The sin of irrelevance HUMAN RESOURCES AND LABOUR RELATIONS Recruitment Objectives Employer Branding - Define target audience - Develop the employee value proposition - Communicate the brand Selecting recruitment methods – tools - Yield ratios - Time lapse data Validation of Selection Methods Criterion validity o Those that do well on selection method (predictor) also perform well on the job (criterion) Validation Process o Administer the selection procedure to a group of people o Correlate (compare) the results/predicted score with performance/criterion score o Look for valid predictors - Predictive & Concurrent o Difference is in who administered to and implications  Predictive  Concurrent 9 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 Application to selection methods - Application forms o What can you ask? o What is it used for? o “weighted application blank”  50 answer YES, 40 high performers = weight 80 - Interviews o Most common but least valid o Because of interviewers and questions asked  Degree of variance and validity of questions o Solution: Interviewers:  Train, use more than one, and give feedback Questions: o Use job analysis as guide for developing, validate, and use “patterned” questions - Testing - Types of interview questions Situational o Question type: o General question form: o Key assumption Behavioural/Behaviour Description Interview (BDI) o Question type: o General question form: o Key assumption Determining Compensation Objectives - Attract, retain, and motivate - External and internal equality, and incentives Internal equality – Job Evaluation - Develop rating system - Use job analysis to rate jobs - Assign pay based on relative value – “Price the Pay Structure” 10 Andrew Ferraro BU 121 April/9/2013 “Point Method” - Universal factors o Skill, Effort, Responsibility, Job conditioning - Sub-factors – Degrees – Point values – Pay grades Pay Equity Legislation NOT “Equal Pay for Equal Work” Prohibits paying different wages to employees who work the same firm in jobs that are different but of comparable worth to the company - Jobs of equal value paid the same regardless of gender - Attempt
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