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Lecture Notes

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Shawn Komar

Lecture 1 – Introduction to OB 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM What is OB?  Social invention – not tangible (not like building), social, made of people  Purpose to accomplish goals  Through a group effort Who Should Study OB?  Managers o Understanding is the first step in trying to enact a change in organization  Employees o Influence on those you work with and even larger organization  Everyone o Basic human psychology o Anyone can benefit 3 Main Goals of OB  Predict (Analysis) o Research o Which will make best leader down the road o Who might quit/stay o What composition of team will perform better than others o Answers to predictions help to make more productive and efficient  Explain (Analysis) o Must be able to back up predictions  Manage (Action) o Better position to manage these factors  Eg. Camp Councellors quitting o Why? o Cannot retain, cannot hire others when students quit halfway through the summer o Problem? Too low of pay? o Solution would be costly (raise pay) o So YMCA was surveyed 3 times in summer, and predicted whether the staff would stay (personal questions about the job to determine cause of why people quitting) PREDICT o Turnover prediction results o Fun summer job? Not proper training? Camp counselors didn’t have skills to manage kids behavior, then counselors (minimum wage) leave EXPLAIN o Managers can now MANAGE the problem by improving the camp counselor training Lecture 2 – Research in OB 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM  One thing to RESEARCH  Another to UNDERSTAND RESEARCH  Must be backed by research – not personal ideas  Trustworthy research is backed – supported by science o Can have more confidence in research  Finding answers yourself will allow you to better tackle situations you are thrown into in your course of work Research Basics  Research Question o Effects o Relationship? X affect Y? o What causes Y? (turnover, quitting, staying)  Literature Review o Done before?  Hypothesis o YES or NO o Prediction supported or not? o Question restated as PREDICTION  Minimize extent that exam tests things we are NOT interested in  A valid exam will minimize measuring additional concepts (that we don’t want) Brayfield & Rothe  5 item questionnaire Kunin and Dunham & Herman  Choose face to represent job satisfaction Job Performance  How to measure performance?  Often part of manager’s job  Co worker doesn’t have that responsibility  Self-bias (rate self better) Pros and Cons  Observational – Human rights, sexual harassment  Correlational – shows relationship but not cause  Experimental – higher costs, time and resources, careful selection and assignments, biases, keep everything constant, too many factors can make it hard to manage Hawthorne Effect  What conditions impact productivity of employees  Conduct and manipulate (lighting, breaks, structure, etc)  Decreased and Increased lighting – increased productivity o Increasing every time lighting changed until very dark o Therefore no relationship o Management was doing ANYTHING o People happy that management was interested in them so whenever they changed a factor productivity increased o Even in control group, when known they were being observed, productivity increased due to the ATTENTION given Lecture 3 – Personality in OB 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM  Our personality traits can predict how much we ENJOY our jobs o This satisfaction level remains fairly stable over the course of our lives  Our personality is a HUGE predictor of job satisfaction o Determines our BEHAVIOURS which can determine how we work/enjoy our job o Behaviors can predict this  Personality vs. fit for a job o Good match – having these characteristics leads to perform well, good performance = high satisfaction  Locus of Control o Internal/external o External shapes your future, out of my control o You shape your own future, take charge, do right, get ahead o Own control/outside control o Faith, luck, higher power  Self Monitoring o Low  heart on sleeve  Are who they are regardless of who’s around o High  How they SHOULD act in that situation  Adapt and change behaviour in response to situations  Core Self-Evaluations o All grouped together o Overall how a person feels about themselves o Controversial – slapped together 4 things and grouped it together, try to call it “new” o BUT it does actually enhance our understanding and ability to predict personality  What Determines Behaviour o Personality v. behaviour = r = .3 (not a very strong relationship) o Situational Approach v. Dispositional Approach  INTERACTIONIST APPROACH – both approaches determine behaviour  What Influences Variability in Personality? o Situation Strength (strong/weak)  Whether the sit has strong guidelines of HOW to behave or not  How they behave, in accordance with personality make up or not?  Strong  KNOW how to behave  Eg. Military; very clear cut  Weak  AMBIGUOIUS, many options and choices, as a culture not a strong idea of what it should be  Eg. Group class project, many suggestions, shooting ideas down, how to react to outburst of idea being shot down?  In weak situations, our personality traits will determine how we react/behave much more so than in strong situations  In strong situations, it is hard to judge personality  In weak situations, you can get more of a feel of who you are/personality make up o Situational Cues  Level of extraversion vs. extroversion  More people around = higher extroversion rating  Eg. Extroversion while alone would be weird  Look to situational cues in our environment o Roles  Mom, dad, friend, sister, brother, etc.  What role are we in at the moment?  Certain aspects come out during certain roles  More contentious in student role v. less conscientious in friend role (slide 18) o Other things that could influence our personality  Problems, challenges, family problems, etc.  Stresses (homework, tests, etc.)  Past experience  Chemistry of people you are with  Other Models of Personality o So far only talked about traits o But there is a personality SPECTRUM, and we all fall on it  TYPE Theories of Personality  DISC  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  4 Colours  these particular theories lack VALIDITY o very common o no evidence that DISC is related to ANY outcomes we might care about o is it a good predictor of behaviours? o Prof. couldn’t find any evidence to support these  How Do We Use Personality o Can almost make them work the way you want to o Careful feedback for a neurotic person, they could dwell on it, could distract and detract from their performance o Can make predictions of how they would act in situations like CRISES o In a project – use specific skills of people to do the most efficient job on projects  Task assignment that are a good match for their strong traits  How is it relevant in organizations? o Hiring o Understanding & managing people  People can fake their personalities  Even if you can get a good measure of personality, must have strong EVIDENCE that that type of personality is relevant for the job.. this is TRICKY  Our behaviour varies from situation to situation  Certain situations can elicit traits that are not usually the case  Personality Traits of Entrepreneurs o Compared to managers, entrepreneurs have higher Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience and lower on Neuroticism and Agreeableness  Do Organizations Have Personalities? o Trustworthiness  friendly, personal, attentive to people and honest (e.g., Disney) o Innovativeness  creative, exciting, interesting, unique, and original (e.g., Nike, Universal Studios, Reebok) o Dominance  big, successful, popular, active and busy (e.g., McDonald’s, Microsoft) o Thrift  cheap, low class, low budget, simple (e.g., JC Penney, Wal-mart) o Style  current, cutting edge, fashionable, hip, stylish (e.g., Nike & Reebok)  Conclusion o Big Five personality dimensions have a large amount of research behind them predicting important organizational outcomes o Behaviour is a function both of personality and features of the situation o There is a significant amount of variability in personality, and people vary in how variable they are o Using personality in hiring is not straightforward – there are a lot of issues to consider Lecture 4 – Learning About Learning 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM Two Learning Theories  BF Skinner o Skinner box – shocks on rats, pressing lever to turn off shocks o All learning is operant learning o Behaviorism o Dominant idea about behavior for couple of decades  Bandura o Social Cognitive o Not all about rewards, punishments, and consequences o We also learn by watching others o And reflecting on our own behavior o studies: kids plying with toys, adult comes in, BOBO doll.. would they hit it too? YES, they imitated adults behavior Facebook Example  Punishment  Done something bad corp. doesn’t want to happen in the future  Look at underlying motive  Behavior that org doesn’t want to happen again  They have done something bad iPhone Example  negative reinforcement  and also punishment – not using the case or holding the phone a certain way Using Reinforcement and Punishment Effectively  reward must have a CLEAR link to behavior you want repeated – commission sale for example  personalized – specific to that person  all possible systems – managers, coworkers, even if they are not reinforcing it, could be something or someone else  punishment must come IMMEDIATELY after, if not, then could be seen as reinforcement o eg. Punishing a dog later will do nothing o must use punishments correctly o eg. Speeding – lots of factors (everyone does it, depends, little to no punishment vs HUGE punishment >50km over limit Schrute Buck  Not personalized, no one cares about it  Punishment not effective.. punishment is a reward  It was rightly done, they just didn’t want it: contingent on behavior, given immediately, continuously given  Could have been more clear cut rewards.. how to get a Schrute buck Social Cognitive Theory  Thoughts and cognitions in peoples heads that lead them to learn what they should be doing  Observational Learning o always doing this, what are other people doing, looking for cues from others, and what happens to them as a result of doing that – imitate behavior if looks favorable  Self-Efficacy o Belief about ones ability to perform ANY behavior, skill, or task o We all have beliefs about how well we think we can do things  Self Regulation o Process – regulate ourselves so we set goals, work towards, monitor progress, maybe change goals if needed, long term outcomes, if we didn’t make goal we need to reflect (help, skills, etc.) and change behavior accordingly s Lecture 5 - Perception 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM  useful – how to react/interact with that person  use for efficiency – as efficient as possible  brain has shortcuts – see, what to do, but can lead us astray  ignore cues that suggest what we initially thought of them… o initially were open to learn about them o so we put them into a category o over time perceptions CAN change o this model is descriptive of how we meet a stranger with little interaction Biases in Person Perception  Can have negative impact  As result of biases may lead us to hire one over another – need to have least bias o Primacy – first impression weighted heavily o Recency – final thoughts left with weighted heavily in perception o Reliance on central traits o Implicit personality theories o Projection o stereotyping “Zero Acquaintance” Trait Inference  perceive without interaction  people tend to give same ratings  ratings correspond to how person themselves rate their personality  Most accurate at judging extraversion and conscientiousness  People can make fairly accurate personality inferences without meeting face-to-face based on: o Examining a stranger’s office/bedroom o Email address o Pretty accurate in judging personality based on this Wait A Minute  How is it the case that we can make fairly accurate zero acquaintance trait inferences, but yet are susceptible to so many different biases when we perceive others? o Only task is to figure out personality? o But when you are hiring can face many biases o If we have proper motivation to decide based on info to come up with accurate description of personality of person o When lots of things going on, not very motivated to one task of deciding personality, lots of other biases can creep in Attribution  Making inferences about the causes for people’s behaviour o Can help us better understand – and, importantly, make predictions about – another person  The goal is to figure out if the person’s behaviour can be attributed to: o The person’s disposition (e.g., personality, intelligence, skills, abilities, morals, etc.) o The situation (e.g., weather, norms, rules/laws, influence of other people, etc.) o WHY did they do that thing or behave in that way?  Dispositional or situational?  If it seems likely that the behaviour was caused by the person, then we can make inferences about that person  If we feel that the behaviour was caused by situational factors, we can’t conclude much about the person  Consistency – does this happen often or is it rare?  Consensus – similar to others in the environment? If yes, might just be doing the norms of how people act, haven’t learned much about INDIVIDUAL, however if it is dissimilar, then it is something to do with personality  Distinctiveness – absent in other aspects? Miss appointments? Tell friends one thing and not show up? Is this distinctive or usually like this? If it is distinctive could be situational, if usual, can infer about personality. High – distinctive – absent from work a lot – stands out.  Based on this info, can make inferences about situation OR personality Attribution Biases  We often do not perceive and weigh consistency, consensus and distinctiveness cues accurately o Fundamental attribution error  Tend to make dispositional inferences about others, don’t go through process to come to accurate conclusion- usually base on personality not on situation o Actor-observer effect  Observers – done because of personality, only see you  Actors – done because of situation, you know what’s in your head o Self-serving bias  Choose attributes that make us feel good  Do good on test – attribute to self - Because of my effort, motivation, and intelligence  Don’t do good on test – put blame on other factors (situational)  Perceptual biases (e.g., primacy and recency) may also affect our search for consistency, consensus and distinctiveness cues Lecture 6 - Values, Attitudes, & Behaviours 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM - diversity – read section for multiple choice, Chimamanda TED Talks from last lecture values  general ideas, what is fundamentally important in life  generally 10-12 core values  most people share same values to different degrees  small sets of values, very broad then can develop attitudes consistent with values  millions of attitudes  evaluation of whether you like or dislike  millions of attitudes, very specific Hofstede  Worked with IBM  What are core values people share  5 main dimensions – across cultures – can find out why they do what they do and their values o Power Distance  High – Power is distributed unequally (large status differences between managers and employees)  Eg. Japan – want to know EXACTLY, clear cut  Low – Power is distributed equally (little status difference between managers and employees)  Canada – low power distance o Uncertainty Avoidance  Degree to which they accept ambiguity  High – Culture finds uncertainty and ambiguity uncomfortable. Have many rules.  Low – Culture tolerates uncertainty, risk taking is valued. o Masculinity/Femininity  Masculine – Distinct gender roles, male dominance, economic performance  Feminine – Fluid gender roles, sexual equality, quality of life o Individualism/Collectivism  Individualistic – emphasize independence, individual initiative and privacy  Collectivistic – favour interdependence, family loyalty o Long-term/Short-term Orientation  Long-term – Emphasize persistence, perseverance, thrift  Short term – Past and present-oriented; respect traditions and norms, look for quick fixes, emphasize steadiness, stability, face-saving and social niceties Attitudes  Behaviour?  Not strong consistent results  What was missing? o Why don’t they predict? o When there was a link, they had a VERY specific attitude o Specific attitudes (e.g., “I think going to the gym is a good idea”) predict behaviour (e.g., going to the gym) better than more general attitudes (e.g., “I think fitness is important”, can go swimming, aerobics, walking to work) o If you want the determine specific behavior, must know specific attitude towards that behavior  Theory of planned behavior o To predict behaviour, we need to consider subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions in addition to attitudes Behaviour  Attitudes?  “Cognitive Dissonance” – if we engage in behaviour that is counter to our attitudes, we will change our attitude to be consistent with our behaviour.  Can lead to us changing/developing attitudes  The dissonance (inconsistency) between our behaviour and our attitude is uncomfortable, so we change our attitude o e.g., If I stay at a job I don’t like because I need the job, my attitude about my job will become more favourable Job Attitudes  Job Satisfaction o Discrepancy – expected job vs. actual job o Fairness o Disposition (personality) – Big Five Personality Traits predice o Emotion/mood – feed into evaluation of job, affective events theory – if you tend to experience events in job to feel negative emotions (yelling boss) will colour how you feel about that job o Other factors (Pay, Opportunities, People, Etc)  Fairness o Distributive Fairness  What outcome did we receive? o Procedural Fairness  How were the outcomes decided? Process used to make decision. Consistency. How fair? o Interactional Fairness  How were we treated during decision making? Listened to input? Opinions considered? Respectfully done? Explained in detail? o The “Fair Process Effect”  People will be more likely to accept an unfavourable outcome if they believe the process was fair  Highlights the importance of transparency o Equity Theory  We compare what we put in (INPUTS) and what we receive (OUTCOMES) with others’ inputs and outcomes  If our inputs and what we receive matches the other person, we feel that things are fair  If we put in more than someone else, and we receive the same output, we do not feel that things are fair  We will adjust our inputs and outputs (or try to adjust others’ inputs and outputs) so that things are fair (that is, even)  Considers inputs like time, effort, level of motivation, skills, education ---- outputs like pay/opportunities for promotion Consequences of Job Satisfaction  Absence from work  Turnover  Job performance  Organizational citizenship behavior – help out even where you don’t normally work, pick up others slack  customer satisfaction & profit  Affects the bottom line  Also, situational factors contribute, not only about job satisfaction Questions  Should organizations care about employees’ job satisfaction? o Yes, if they are satisfied, org. will make more money, more motivation, loyalty, but other factors could affect this too.. even though there are other factors that contribute to job satisfaction.. cant hurt anything.. depends on nature of job.  Can managers affect or change employees’ job satisfaction? o No control over expectations of potential employees. Cant control personality.. but can control other factors. Needs to be fair  If personality influences job satisfaction, should companies hire people who are more likely to be satisfied?  Is it worth the time and money to conduct employee satisfaction surveys? o Lots of large org’s do this, hire companies to develop survey then collect analyze and present back to organization with recommendations. Focus on things they can affect, but so many factors it can be challenging o But if they do have resources and leverage, then do it, could have positive outcome Commitment  Affective o People stay because they love it, passionate, cant work anywhere else, emotional connection, stay because they WANT to stay  Continuance o Stay because it is too COSTLY to leave, no other job to go to, others don’t pay as well/have benefits, move to other town, stay because they feel they HAVE to  Normative o Sense of OBLIGATION and LOYALTY, feel that they SHOULD stay (eg. Org. paid for education, work to “pay back debt”) o Strongly identified with mission of organization Organizational Commitment  All three reduce turnover  Affective is the best  Research – more affectively committed = better job performance  Continuance commitment negatively affects performance  High continuance commitment + low affective commitment  unhappy employees who won’t leave (bare minimum to keep job) Work-It  Organizations are concerned with behaviours like performance, turnover, absenteeism, citizenship behaviour and customer satisfaction because it can affect the bottom line  Employee attitudes like job satisfaction and organizational commitment are one factor affecting these behaviours, which organizations can influence to some degree  Of the determinants of job satisfaction, one of the few under the control of the organization and managers is fairness, particularly procedural and interactional justice Midterm Review & Information 1/15/2013 9:20:00 AM Format  30 MC  3/4 Short Answer PEOPLE  Taylor, Bandura, Skinner, ETC. Tips for Studying  Focus on the concepts that are defined in the margin of
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