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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Ch. 5. Motivation & Performance.docx

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Jennifer Komar

BU288 Lecture 8Ch 5 Theories of Work MotivationTues Oct 9 2012REASONS TO STUDY MOTIVATIONMotivation became more important in contemporary organizations due to the need for increased productivity to be globally competitiverapid changes Stable rules are being replaced by the need for flexibility and attention to customersneed initiative which depends on motivationTheres no allpurpose motivation theory Theories serve different purposes A good set of theories1recognizes human diversity as the same conditions dont motivate everyone2explains how some people are selfmotivated while others need external motivation3Recognizes the social aspect of humans motivation is affected by how we see others being treatedMotivation extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Basic characteristicsoEffort strength of my work related behaviour quantitative work hardoPersistence how persistently I apply effort to my work task quantitative work hardoDirection channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the firm qualitative work smartoGoals all motivated behaviour has some goal toward which it is directed good or bad Extrinsic vs Intrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation stems from direct relationship between workertask selfappliedoFeelings of achievement challenge competence interest in the job hobbiesExtrinsic motivation stems from work environment external to task applied by othersoPay fringe benefits policies forms of supervision awards for performancenot all motivators fit neatly into the definitionscompliment signals competence so its bothSelfdetermination theory SDT whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlledoAutonomous motivation when people are selfmotivated by intrinsic factorsmore effectiveoControlled motivation when people are motivated to obtain a consequence or extrinsic reward can lead to autonomous motivation if valuesattitudes associated with behaviour are internalizedoKey factor of theoryextent to which my motivation is autonomous vs controlledExistence of extrinsic motivators decreases motivating potential of intrinsic rewardspeople feel less competentin control of behaviour They think their performance is controlled by environmentoOccurs only under very limited conditions and are easily avoidable MOTIVATION VS PERFORMANCEPerformance extent that organizational member contributes to achieving organizational goalsMotivation contributes to performance but so do many other factorsso relationship isnt 1to1Perception affects motivation because biases are motivated perceptionmotivation x abilityperformanceBU288 Lecture 8Ch 5 Theories of Work MotivationTues Oct 9 20122 Forms Of Intelligence Mental Ability Cognitive Ability Predicts Performance 1General Cognitive ability persons basic info processing capacities and cognitive resourcesoUsually measured by aptitude tests that measure specific abilities ex verbaloPredicts learning and training successjob performance in all kinds of jobsoBetter predictor of performance for more complex jobs that require using more cognitive skills2Emotional intelligence EI the ability to understand and manage onesothers feelingsemotionsoPeter SaloveyJohn Mayer first coined the term EI and developed a model of 4 interrelated sets of skills The 4 skills are sequential steps that form a hierarchy 1lowestoEI is especially important for job performance of workers with lower levels of cognitive ability aPerceiveidentify emotions accurately selfothers most basic necessary for next 3 stepsbUsing emotions to facilitate thinking use emotions to guide thinkingreasoning in functional ways like making decisions This involves shifting emotionsgenerating new ones to see things differently Important affects how people think when making choicescUnderstanding emotions emotional language and the signals conveyed by emotions emotional info causesresults of emotions how emotions change How emotions affect peopledManaging emotions to attain specific goals managing ones ownothers feelingsemotional relationships Highest level as it requires one to master stages 13 Here I can regulateadjust myothers emotions to suit the situation ex be calm when Im angry MotivationPerformance Relationship EducationPerformance RelationshipPerformance can be lowhigh despite highlow motivation due to personality general cognitive ability EI and poor understanding of the task or luckchance factors damaging performanceEducation level academic credentials or degrees an individual has obtainededucation is positively related to 1 esp complex jobs2negatively related to 31Core task performance basic required duties of a particular job2Citizenship performance extra behaviours by workers that strengthen organizations effectives3Counterproductive performance voluntary behaviours that harm firms wellbeing educationperformance relationshipstronger for men and stronger for Caucasian workers than for racial minoritiestheres validity for using education level as a factor of hiring process NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATIONNeed theories motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which theyll be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performanceoConcerned with what motivates workers needs associated incentivesgoals ex moneyneedsbehaviourincentivesgoals When a need is unsatisfied it affects thinking behaviour
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