BU288 Lecture 9 Ch. 6: Motivation in Practice (P191-206) Thurs. Oct. 11. 2012.
Job design as a motivator
•The use of money as motivation is an attempt to capitalize on extrinsic motivation.
Approaches to using job design as a motivator represents an attempt to capitalize on intrinsic
•Goal of job design: to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating
than others, and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs. Money isn’t always the
Traditional Views of Job Design
•From Industrial Revolution until 1960s, the philosophy of non-managerial jobs’ design was
job simplification. This period had increasing urbanization & growth of a free market
•With complex machinery & uneducated/untrained workforce, specialization was the key to
efficiency. Production was broken down into basic steps that even uneducated workers could
•Peak of job simplification = early 1900s; Frederick W. Taylor’s Scientific Management
1) Extreme division of labour and specialization, even to supervisors
2) Standardization & regulation of work activities & breaks
•Jobs designed according to principles of scientific management don’t seem intrinsically
motivating. The motivational strategy used during this period was close supervision & piece-
opiece rate pay: Paid an amount for each unit produced
•This strategy was good for uneducated workers struggling to get basic needs, but unsure with
better-educated workers whose basic needs are fairly well met.
Job Scope & Motivation
•Job scope: the breadth and depth of a job; Broad jobs
require workers to do many different tasks; deep jobs
have freedom in planning how to do the work.
•Breath: number of different activities performed on a job
•Depth: degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are
•High scope jobs have great breadth and depth.
•Assembly line jobs are low-scope because a single task
is repeated, with no discretion as to method
•High breadth and little depth, and vice versa, are relatively low-scope jobs too. Utility
workers (filling jobs in assembly lines for absent workers) have many tasks, but little
discretion. Also, quality control inspectors perform one task, but must exercise judgment in
performing this task.
•High-scope jobs provide more intrinsic motivation than low-scope jobs.
oMaslow’s need hierarchy &ERG theory both indicate that people can fulfill higher-order
needs by the opportunity to perform high-scope jobs
oExpectancy theory suggests: high-scope jobs provide intrinsic motivation if outcome =