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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Ch. 6. Motivation In Practice.docx

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Jennifer Komar

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BU288 Lecture 9 Ch. 6: Motivation in Practice (P191-206) Thurs. Oct. 11. 2012.
Job design as a motivator
The use of money as motivation is an attempt to capitalize on extrinsic motivation.
Approaches to using job design as a motivator represents an attempt to capitalize on intrinsic
Goal of job design: to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating
than others, and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs. Money isnt always the
best motivator.
Traditional Views of Job Design
From Industrial Revolution until 1960s, the philosophy of non-managerial jobs design was
job simplification. This period had increasing urbanization & growth of a free market
With complex machinery & uneducated/untrained workforce, specialization was the key to
efficiency. Production was broken down into basic steps that even uneducated workers could
Peak of job simplification = early 1900s; Frederick W. Taylor’s Scientific Management
1) Extreme division of labour and specialization, even to supervisors
2) Standardization & regulation of work activities & breaks
Jobs designed according to principles of scientific management don’t seem intrinsically
motivating. The motivational strategy used during this period was close supervision & piece-
rate pay
opiece rate pay: Paid an amount for each unit produced
This strategy was good for uneducated workers struggling to get basic needs, but unsure with
better-educated workers whose basic needs are fairly well met.
Job Scope & Motivation
Job scope: the breadth and depth of a job; Broad jobs
require workers to do many different tasks; deep jobs
have freedom in planning how to do the work.
Breath: number of different activities performed on a job
Depth: degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are
High scope jobs have great breadth and depth.
Assembly line jobs are low-scope because a single task
is repeated, with no discretion as to method
High breadth and little depth, and vice versa, are relatively low-scope jobs too. Utility
workers (filling jobs in assembly lines for absent workers) have many tasks, but little
discretion. Also, quality control inspectors perform one task, but must exercise judgment in
performing this task.
High-scope jobs provide more intrinsic motivation than low-scope jobs.
oMaslow’s need hierarchy &ERG theory both indicate that people can fulfill higher-order
needs by the opportunity to perform high-scope jobs
oExpectancy theory suggests: high-scope jobs provide intrinsic motivation if outcome =
BU288 Lecture 9 Ch. 6: Motivation in Practice (P191-206) Thurs. Oct. 11. 2012.
Assigning employees stretch assignments can increase job-scope. They offer workers
challenging opportunities to broaden their skills by working on many tasks with new
responsibilities  interest.
Job rotation: rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization
oIncreases job-scope &develops new skills/expertise that can prepare employees for future
The Job Characteristics Model – J. Richard Hacjman & Greg Oldham
There are several core job characteristics that have a certain psychological impact on
Psychological states induced by the job leads to outcomes; relevant to worker & organization
Several other factors (moderators) influence the extent to which these relationships hold true
The 5 Core Job Characteristics
Higher levels of these characteristics lead to favourable outcomes shown in diagram below
1. Skill variety: opportunity to do variety of job activities using various skills & talents (like
job breadth)
oOwner who plans & interacts with customers (high) vs. a painter who paints all day (low)
2. Autonomy: freedom to schedule one’s own work activities& decide work procedures (like
job depth)
oOwner who plans his day (high) vs. secretary who does whatever the owner says (low)
3. Task significance: impact that a job has on other people (nursing the sick vs. sweeping
hospital floor)
4. Task identity: the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, start to
oHigh: cabinet maker designs a piece of furniture, selects wood, builds object, and finishes
oLow: worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe solely to make table legs
5. Feedback: information about the effectiveness of ones work performance  intrinsic
oHigh: electronics factory worker who assembles a radio & tests it to see if it works
oLow: worker who assembles a radio & someone else tests it and makes needed
one can have control over many skills that can be perceived as meaningless/fragmented
Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) by Hackman & Oldham: measures core characteristics of jobs
oJDS requires workers to report amount of the various core characteristics contained in
their jobs.
motivating potential score=skill variety+task identity+task significance
oThe JDS measures characteristics on 7-point scales; so the score can range from 1 to 343.
oAverage motivating potential score for 6930 employees on 76 jobs = 128
Critical Psychological States : Work is intrinsically motivating when:
1) Seen as meaningful: occurs with skill variety, task significance & task identity
2) Worker feels responsible for the outcomes of the work: comes with autonomy
BU288 Lecture 9 Ch. 6: Motivation in Practice (P191-206) Thurs. Oct. 11. 2012.
3) Worker has knowledge about his work progress: comes with feedback about
Outcomes : critical psychological states leads to many outcomes that are relevant to workers
& firm
oHigh intrinsic motivation occurs when worker feels truly in control of a challenging job
that provides good feedback about performance  reduced absenteeism & turnover
oRelationship between work & worker is emphasized, and worker gets motivated by the
Moderators : moderator/contingency variables intervene between job characteristics and
oWorker’s skill: workers with weak knowledge & skills don’t respond favourably to jobs
that are high in motivating potential because theyre too demanding  skill moderates
how motivating jobs lead to favourable outcomes (so they don’t always lead to
favourable outcomes)
oGrowth need strength: extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need
satisfaction by performing their jobs  high growth needs = most responsive to
challenging work
oSatisfaction with context factors (pay, supervision) means more responsive to
challenging work
Research Evidence for Job Characteristics Model
Workers describe jobs by means of JDS. Then worker reactions to these jobs are measured.
Workers respond more favourably to jobs that are higher in motivating potential
All core characteristics are positively related to the model’s outcomes & other outcomes
(supervisor satisfaction, organizational commitment) relative importance of characteristics
Some core characteristics (autonomy, feedback) were also related to behavioural
(absenteeism, performance) and well-being (anxiety, stress) outcomes.
Experienced meaningfulness is the most critical psychological state
There’s weak support for experienced responsibility & no support for role of feedback
Evidence that growth needs & context satisfaction affect reactions to job design is weak.

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BU288 Lecture 9Ch 6 Motivation in Practice P191206Thurs Oct 11 2012JobdesignasamotivatorTheuseofmoneyasmotivationisanattempttocapitalizeonextrinsicmotivationApproachestousingjobdesignasamotivatorrepresentsanattempttocapitalizeonintrinsicmotivationGoalofjobdesigntoidentifythecharacteristicsthatmakesometasksmoremotivatingthanothersandtocapturethesecharacteristicsinthedesignofjobsMoneyisntalwaysthebestmotivatorTraditionalViewsofJobDesignFromIndustrialRevolutionuntil1960sthephilosophyofnonmanagerialjobsdesignwasjobsimplificationThisperiodhadincreasingurbanizationgrowthofafreemarketeconomyWithcomplexmachineryuneducateduntrainedworkforcespecializationwasthekeytoefficiencyProductionwasbrokendownintobasicstepsthatevenuneducatedworkerscoulddoPeakofjobsimplificationearly1900sFrederickWTaylorsScientificManagementprinciples1Extremedivisionoflabourandspecializationeventosupervisors2StandardizationregulationofworkactivitiesbreaksJobsdesignedaccordingtoprinciplesofscientificmanagementdontseemintrinsicallymotivatingThemotivationalstrategyusedduringthisperiodwasclosesupervisionpieceratepayopieceratepayPaidanamountforeachunitproducedThisstrategywasgoodforuneducatedworkersstrugglingtogetbasicneedsbutunsurewithbettereducatedworkerswhosebasicneedsarefairlywellmetJobScopeMotivationJobscopethebreadthanddepthofajobBroadjobsrequireworkerstodomanydifferenttasksdeepjobshavefreedominplanninghowtodotheworkBreathnumberofdifferentactivitiesperformedonajobDepthdegreeofdiscretionorcontrolaworkerhasoverhowworktasksareperformedHighscopejobshavegreatbreadthanddepthAssemblylinejobsarelowscopebecauseasingletaskisrepeatedwithnodiscretionastomethodtraditionalHighbreadthandlittledepthandviceversaarerelativelylowscopejobstooUtilityworkersfillingjobsinassemblylinesforabsentworkershavemanytasksbutlittlediscretionAlsoqualitycontrolinspectorsperformonetaskbutmustexercisejudgmentinperformingthistaskHighscopejobsprovidemoreintrinsicmotivationthanlowscopejobsoMaslowsneedhierarchyERGtheorybothindicatethatpeoplecanfulfillhigherorderneedsbytheopportunitytoperformhighscopejobsoExpectancytheorysuggestshighscopejobsprovideintrinsicmotivationifoutcomeattractive1
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