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BU288 Chapter 5, 6, 7, 11, 13 Textbook Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Laura Allan

BU288 Organizational Behavior Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation Motivation the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Effort Persistence Direction Goals Intrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self applied. Extrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others Self-determination theory a theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled Autonomous motivation when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors. Controlled motivation when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward. Performance the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization General cognitive ability a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources Emotional intelligence the ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions. Need theories motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance Maslows hierarchy of needs a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level of unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential Physiological Safety Belongingness Self-esteem Self-actualization Alderfers ERG Theory A three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy McClellands theory of needs a nonhierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation Need for achievement Need for affiliation Need for power Managerial implications of need theories Appreciate diversity Appreciate intrinsic motivation Process theories motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs Expectancy theory a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job Outcomes consequences that follow work behavior. Instrumentality the probability that a particular first-level outcome will be followed by a particular second-level outcome Valence the expected value of work outcomes; the extent to which they are attractive or unattractive Expectancy the probability that a particular first-level outcome can be achieved Force - the effort directed toward a first-level outcome Managerial implications for expectancy theory Boost expectancies employees should be able to expect to be able to achieve first-level outcomes Clarify reward contingencies Appreciate diverse needs equity theory a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group goal the object or aim of an action Goal setting theory a process theory that states that goals are motivational when they are specific, challenging, and when organizational members are committed to them and feedback about progress toward goal attainment is possible. Goal specificity make goals fairly specific Goal challenge goals too challenging are not motivating Goal commitment individuals must commit to goals Goal feedback feedback improves motivation, schedule of small tasks that bring individual closer to completing goal can help Goal orientation an individuals goal preferences in achievement situations Learning goal orientation a preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations Performance-prove goal orientation a preference to obtain favorable judgments about the outcome ones performance Performance-avoid goal orientation a preference to avoid negative judgments about the outcome of ones performance Distal goal long-term or end goals Proximal goal short-term or sub-goals Integrative model of motivation theories: Expectancy theory Intervening Factors Motivation Performance Goal setting theory Needs and valence Equity perception Job satisfaction Chapter 6: Motivation in Practice Money as a motivator: Piece-rate a pay system which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit completed Wage incentive plans various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs When not managed properly, wage incentive plans can cause lower quality, differential opportunity can occur, reduced cooperation, incompatible job design, restriction of productivity (employees may limit their work because they fear that their incentives will be cut and a new required and higher quota will be established by management) Merit pay plans systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs Problems occur when managers fail to discriminate between good and bad employees and when bonus increases are too smal
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