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Lecture

nov21,week11,weds.docx


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CC210
Professor
Jennifer Lavoie

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Psychology
November 21, 2012
Week 11, Weds
Theories of Sexual Offending
Potential Causes:
1) Deviant Sexual Preferences
2) Cognitive Distortions
3) Intimacy Deviants
“Deviant Sexual Preference Hypothesis”
Men who engage in sexually deviant behaviour do so because they prefer them to social acceptable
behaviour
E.g paraphilias
Paraphilia:
(DSM-IV-TR)
Recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviours
Generaelly around children, or non consenting persons, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or others
or non human object.
E.g pedophilia, Hebophilia, Exhibitionism
Frotteurism, Voyeurism, Sadism
Forms of Behavioural Learning: Classical Conditioning
- Acquisition of deviant preferences
- Pairing of sexually arousing physiological state and deviant stimuli
- Deviatn stimulit: circumstantial (time/place where masturbation/intercourse takes place),
Deliberat (sexual fantasy involving force, fetishes), Neutral Stimulus becomes a conditioned
stimulus
- Sexual Arousal:
- Unconditioned response becomes conditioned response.
Forms of Behavioural Learning:
Operant Conditioning
Maintenance of deviant preferences
Positive reinforcement (masturbation)
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Sexual Deviation Theory:
Mcguire et al. (1965)
Hypothesis: Sexual deviation as a conditioned behaviour
Role of precipitating incident: An inappropriate early sexual experience
-first real experience
Strong salience, supplies initial fantasy for later reinforcement
Can be deviant
Role of conditioning:
Masturbaton to deviant fantasy (derived from a real sexual experience)
Positive reinforcement
Arousal to non deviant stimuli (e.g fantasy of having consensual se with an appropriate other) becomes
extinguished due to lack of masturbatory reinforcement
Sexual Deviation Theory:
Soecific Predictions:
Any deviation can be acquired
Any deviation can be extinguished by re-conditioning
Deviant interest is not extinguished by guilt (distal influence)
A person who has acquired a deviant sexual interest is likely to acquire other deviant interests
The Role of Fantasy: is incredibly essential to understanding how sex offenders work/develop
Why is fantasy important?
1) Sustains pleasure (through memory) when pairing it with masturbation
2) It decreases behavioural inhibitions by releasing sexual tension
3) It stimulate grandiosity, since all fantasies are perfect
4) It stimulate omnipotence (feelings of power, all powerful)
5) Allows the perpetrator to practice his paraphilia
Application: Pornography
Pornography- depictions of sexual contact when one of the participants is portrayed as powerless or non
consenting, or is little more than an object.
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