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Lecture 1

CH120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Equation Of State, Boiling Point, Electron Configuration

Course Code
Carey Bissonnette

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CHEM 120 Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter - Winter 2010
Section/Class # Time and Room Instructor Office Ext.* E-mail
001 (#5601) 10:30 am MWF in DC-1350 R.J. Le Roy ESC 332 84051
*The phone number for the University of Waterloo is 519-888-4567.
Course Syllabus
Calendar Description: The stoichiometry of compounds and chemical reactions. Properties of gases. Periodicity and
chemical bonding. Energy changes in chemical systems. Electronic structure of atoms and molecules; correlation with the
chemical reactivity of common elements, inorganic and organic compounds.
Text: R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood, F.G. Herring and J.D. Madura, General Chemistry (Principles and Modern Applications),
Prentice Hall, Ninth Edition, 2007. The text comes with a full Solutions Manual. The 8th edition of this book is also acceptable.
Several copies of the text and the solutions manual have been placed on reserve in the Davis Centre Library for use in the
library. The call numbers are UWD 1532 (for the text), and UWD 1534 (for the solutions manual).
Chapter Topic(s) class hours
Important dates
Jan. 15: Deadline for adding a
course to your schedule
Jan. 22: Deadline for dropping a
Course with no penalty.
Feb. 2: Test #1 5:30-7:00 PM
Feb. 15-19: Reading Week
Feb. 26: Deadline for withdrawing
from a course
Mar. 9: Test #2 5:30-7:00 PM
Apr. 5: Lectures end
Apr. 9-23: Exam period
1-4 Review of stoichiometry ……......……...............….…….. 3
5 Reactions in aqueous solutions .………………………… 4
(including “our” method of balancing of redox reactions – see page 11 of this booklet)
6 Gases (including the Van der Waals and virial equations of state) 4
7 Thermochemistry ………………………………………. 5
8 Electrons in atoms (including quantum theory of the H atom) .…. 6
9 Periodic table and atomic properties …………………… 2
(including electron configurations of monatomic anions and cations; ignore quantitative
aspects concerning penetration and shielding, i.e. equations 9.3, 9.4 and 9.5)
10 Chemical bonding and molecular geometry …………… 4
11 Quantum theory of chemical bonding …………………. 7
(up to and including page 445 of the text; the MO diagram for CO
on p. 446 is wrong! σ2p is higher in energy than π2p.) ___
Access to Assistance
Office for Persons with Disabilities (OPD): This office collaborates with all academic departments to arrange appropriate
accommodations for students with disabilities without compromising the academic integrity of the curriculum. If you have a
documented disability, (i.e. physical, learning, or sensory disabilities or chronic medical conditions), you are encouraged to
contact this office to determine eligibility for our services. It is recommended that you register with the OPD at the beginning
of each academic term, if you anticipate that you require academic accommodations to lessen the impact of your disability.
The office is located in Needles Hall, Room 1132.
Counselling Services: The University of Waterloo can be a challenging environment. A meeting with a friendly and
experienced counsellor can help you handle and manage your goals. Counselling Services provides a wide range of
strategies to help you do your very best during your time at Waterloo. Counselling Services can help you with Study Skills,
Career Planning and Personal Goals. For an appointment, call 519-888-4567, extension 32655 or go to Needles Hall, Room
2080. Their web-site is
Avoidance of Academic Offenses
Students are expected to know what constitutes academic integrity, to avoid committing academic offenses, and to take
responsibility for their actions. Students who are unsure whether an action constitutes an offense, or who need help in learning
how to avoid offenses (e.g., plagiarism, cheating) or about “rules” for group work/collaboration should seek guidance from the
course professor, TA, academic advisor, or the Undergraduate Associate Dean. For information on categories of offenses and
types of penalties, refer to Policy #71, Student Academic Discipline, .
Students who believe that they have been wrongly or unjustly penalized have the right to grieve; refer to Policy #70, Student
Grievance, .

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Learning Outcomes
CHEM 120 (Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter) and CHEM 123 (Chemical Reactions, Kinetics and Equilibria)
comprise a full year course in “general chemistry”. These courses lay the foundation for more advanced chemistry courses
including organic chemistry (e.g. CHEM 264 or 266), inorganic chemistry (e.g. CHEM 212), analytical chemistry (e.g.
CHEM 220), physical chemistry (e.g. CHEM 254) and biochemistry (e.g. CHEM 233 or 237).
By the end of this course, you should be able to explain trends in certain physical and chemical properties of matter in terms of the
electronic structures of atoms and molecules. More specifically, this course is designed so that by the end, you should be able to:
- identify and describe the different types of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions
- apply stoichiometric and thermodynamic principles to quantify the amounts of reactants, products and energy
consumed by or produced by a chemical reaction
- describe the behaviour of molecules in gases and predict the properties of gases
- describe the electronic structure of atoms and justify the organization of the periodic table
- predict trends in the properties of the elements
- predict and visualize the three-dimensional structures of molecules, and assess which structures are most important
when more than one structure is plausible
- describe bonding in molecules in terms of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals, and understand molecular shape
and stability in terms of electron count
Learning Methods
Lectures: You (with your class) will meet with your instructor three times per week, as shown in the table at the top of the first
page. During lectures, your instructor will focus on selected topics and he/she will assume that you will have prepared for
each lecture by reading ahead in his/her course notes or the text. During lectures your instructor will focus on selected
topics. He/she will not devote time to all topics discussed in the text. You may have to learn some of the course material on
your own.
On-line Assignments: The assignments in CHEM 120 provide you with an opportunity to apply the concepts introduced during
lectures. Most assignments are provided on-line so that you can obtain frequent and immediate feedback on your understanding
of the concepts. Each on-line assignment can be repeated up to four times, so that you can correct your mistakes or get help
whenever you need it. More detailed information about the on-line assignments is provided on page 5 of this course information
Problem Sets: A modest number of problems will be assigned for which written solutions are to be turned in as part of the
“Assignments” component of your mark.
On-line “mini-lectures”: You will find mini-lectures” on all topics in CHEM 120 in the “Mini-Lectures” folder on our
course web-site on UW-ACE. (More information about UW-ACE is provided on page 4 of this course information booklet.)
Your lectures and textbook are the primary sources of information for this course, but you can use these mini-lectures
whenever you are seeking more information or a different perspective.
Homework Problems: For each week of term, we have assigned problems for you to try. (See pages 8-10 of this course
information booklet.) You are not required to hand in solutions to these problems; the responsibility to do them is yours.
Make sure you can do all of these assigned homework problems!
Office Hours: Not all learning happens in the classroom. You may find it necessary to meet with your course instructor
during his office hours to get some one-on-one help. Your instructor will expect you to come prepared with a specific question
or questions. (e.g., In reviewing my notes, I understand up to this point, but I get confused here.) It is not a beneficial use of your
time, or your instructor’s time, to show up and say “I just don’t get (insert specific topic).”
Learning Assessment
Assignments (10%): Most assignments will be done on-line and accessed via MapleTA. See pages 4-5 of this course
information booklet for more information. If you choose not to do the on-line homework assignments, then the 10% weight
for the assignments is transferred to the tests and exams, with 2.5% going towards each of Test #1 and Test #2 and 5% going
towards the final exam.
Term Tests (30%): There will be two 80-minute term tests, each worth 15% of the course grade. The tests will be held on
Tuesday Feb. 2 and on Tuesday Mar. 9 (rooms TBA). The seating plans for the term tests will be announced in class (and
on UW-ACE) in the week prior to the tests.

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Final Examination (60%): There will be a 2.5-hour exam held during the exam period (Apr. 9-23). The examination is
scheduled by the Registrar. Normally, the examination schedule is posted in early March. Until you know the date of your last
examination, don't make plans to leave campus before April 23.
Important!! The learning assessment described above applies only if the weighted average of your tests and exam is at
least 45%. If the weighted average of your tests and exam is less than 45%, then that weighted average is also your course
Why do we place extra emphasis on the weighted average of your tests and exam? Our experience, compiled over many
years with tens of thousands of students passing through CHEM 120, indicates that your results on the tests and exam are the
best indicator we have of gauging your readiness for and chance of success in other chemistry courses. Low marks on the
test and the exam are a very strong indicator that you are not yet ready to move on to other chemistry courses. Keep in mind,
however, that the assignments are an important part of getting you ready for the tests and exams. It is in your best interests
to do the assignments, and learn from your mistakes.
Important Policies for CHEM 120
(1) Calculators: You may bring a non-programmable calculator to the tests and the exam. If your favourite calculator is
programmable (or can store textual information), then you must take your calculator to a proctor before the test and show
him/her that you have cleared the memory. The following calculators are highly recommended: Sharp EL-531W, TI 30X II
(S or B), and Casio fx-260. These calculators can be purchased at various stores as well as on campus. The Sharp and TI
models have been adopted by the Math Faculty for use in first-year math courses, so if you are also taking MATH courses,
you should consider one of those models.
(2) Absence on the day of a test or exam: If you miss any examination, either a midterm or final, then you shall be given
a grade of zero on that examination unless you missed the examination for valid reasons (e.g. illness). If you miss an
examination because of illness, you must provide a completed Verification of Illness Form, which can be obtained from the
Health Services web-site ( The completed form must first be
registered with the Science Undergraduate Office (ESC 253). The Undergraduate Office will keep the original form for their
records and forward the relevant information to your instructor. The completed form must specify the precise period of
absence. If you become ill while away from the University and miss a test or an exam as a result of that illness, then you
may supply a Doctor’s certificate covering the precise period of absence, provided the certificate includes a classification of
the illness as slight, moderate, or severe. In all cases, the letter or form must include contact information of the person who
signed the letter or form, and it must be registered with the Science Undergraduate Office.
A Verification of Illness Form (VIF) or a doctor’s note does not necessarily excuse a student from missing a test or
exam! The instructors and course coordinator will consider the information provided on the VIF or doctor’s note when
deciding whether a student should be excused. Being excused from a test or exam is NOT automatic upon the presentation
of suitable medical verification. Students should carefully consider the wisdom of missing a test or exam. The following
rules apply when it is decided that a student has a legitimate excuse for missing a term test or exam..
If it is decided that a student has a legitimate excuse for missing a term test, then the weight of the term test will be
transferred to the final examination. (There are no make-up term tests!)
If it is decided that a student has a legitimate excuse for missing the final exam, then he/she will normally write a
make-up exam next December together with students taking CHEM 120 in the Fall 2010 term.
Important Web Sites (Bookmark these sites!)
UW Home Page (
This is the main UW Home Page. Use the links and/or search engine to find other important UW web-sites.
Registrar’s Office (
The Registrar’s Office provides administrative services to all students in a number of areas. The Registrar’s Office is where
you would go to request a transcript, drop off course override forms and much more. Before going to the Registrar’s Office,
consult the web-site to obtain important information and/or forms (e.g. plan modification forms, course override forms, etc.)
Quest (
Quest is the University of Waterloo's student information system. As a student at UW, you can use Quest to perform a
number of important tasks (e.g. update your contact information; view your tuition fees and account summary; pay your
fees; view your term grades or unofficial transcript; enrol in, drop, or swap classes; view your class schedule; view the UW
course catalogue and Schedule of Classes, etc.)
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