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Lecture 8

Communications Lecture 8.docx

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Communication Studies
Course Code
Ghislain Thibault

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Cinema  What is running, are all four hooves up in the air or is there one still on the ground?  They set up cameras along a railway and took photos of a horse running, but when they put them all together, they had their first movie!  Eadweard Muybridges “horse in motion” (1878) used motion picture as a science research tool… thomas Edison later as a profit-making commercial amusment  The first motion picture apparatuses were named o “Kinetograph” writing movement o “Cinematograph” writing movement o “Biograph” writing life o “Animatograph” writing animation (movement)  Thomas Edison “Kinetoscope”  People used to take photos thinking that they could take pictures of ghosts or the dead (double exposure). Cinematograph  Kinetoscope was designed for individual viewing (1893-1900) (small box where films of photos moved along to create movies, only lasted tops 3 minutes)-then nickelodeon  The lumieres brother introduced in 1895 a system with a projector, a camera and a developer all at once  First films were silent – a by product of photography (accompanied by live musicians; sound effects; commentary by showman or projectionist)  Moving towards mass media  2 key factors to the boom in audiences o Czitrom: introduction of a new kind of film, where instead of 1-3 minutes, they were 20 minutes  “Most identifies the amusement situation inseparable from the expansion of the city and factory labor (…) nickelodeons offered a place of escape for its eager patrons” 164-165 o Emergence of the nickelodeon (it cost a nickel)  Collective space  Films; th  1. Projected moving pictures became a popular leisure activity in the late 19 century  2. Although newly urban working class were poorm they were surrounded by choices they never had before and could sometimes afford a movie for a nickel  3. Early films were projected in vaudeville theatres, opera houses, cafes, churches, YMCA’s, department stores etc  4. Thus cinema was a mass experience  5. Cinemas were seen as places for careless conduct among youth, since it was dark and not well ventilated, it was seen as evil o We used to talk and now we sit in silence to watch a film  Neurostasia (what now is called a nervous breakdown or anxiety-more and more people were having them in cities, where they had not been seen in the past) o Picture yourself as one among many, no one talks, you have many technologies that remove you from talking, you feel anonymous so you feel anxious, and replaceable o Then you see these people on the screen that are super healthy, and super successful, and that are free from this disease of the neurostasia  “For a moment, unsure urban viewers could expe
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