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CS 101

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Communication Studies
Natalie Coulter

MASS COMMUNICATIONS MIDTERM REVIEW OCTOBER 272011Introductionwhole essence of communications is what defines us as different than animals but also what is fundamental to one of the most basic principles of good governance control by the people What is Communicationprocess of sending a message from one person or group or institution to another which has an impact on the receiverORas a negotiation and exchange of meaning within cultures where the interaction between people messages and reality help to produce particular meanings or understandings of the world Lasswell Model made in 1948 provides an idea of how communication workswhosays whatin which channelto whomwith what effectbreak down communication into 6 forms1Oral Communication distinguishes humans from other animals includes things such as interviews informal conversations speeches various paralinguistic features of oral communication ex inflection tone accent stress2Written Communication includes everything from notes on napkins person letters emails to essays and magazine feature stories to the text of advertisement 3NonVerbal Communication often understand the cues we get from the way people dress hand gesture body language 4Graphical Communication analyzing how images are put together and the ways they work to communicate messages5Numerical Communication presenting and interpreting of numerical data how numbers can be used to support arguments6Mass Communications understanding the way new communication technologies enable new means of presenting and integrating oral written nonverbal graphical andor numerical communication to individuals groups and masses includes newspapers magazines books film tv internet5 uses for communication rarely does any one form of communication only offer one function1information gathering storage retrieval and dissemination2persuasion propaganda and publicity3entertainment4socializationreinforces norms of behavior for groups and help integrate individuals into groups 5individual attainmenthow communication enables individual creative and artistic expression personal growth and contributes to individual interaction in groups less important in mass communications 4 areas where important issues arise as a result of communication activities and around which the study of communication revolves ECONOMIC SOCIAL POLITICAL and CULTURAL spheresWhat is Mass Communicationmass referring to a large group of people who think irrationally3 distinct forms of mass communication according to Rowland Lorimer an Mike Gasher 1 the centralized production and dissemination of mass information and entertainment 2decentralized production and wise accessibility of information and entertainment primarily by means of public access to the Internet 3 exchange of information that takes places among individuals and groups by means of public access to communication channels Why Study Mass Communicationsdont just convey messages but help shape values social attitudes behaviorsshape the way we see the world by framing issues in ways that tend to be favorable to powerful elites rather than to the majority of people advertising agencies spend billions of dollars marketing products and determining the best way to influence audiences to purchase goods services ideas or valuesChapter 1 Economics of Mass Medianew media innovations outside mainstream include categories such as alternative media underground media and hightech mediaalternative media campus radio stationsunderground media focus on live local entertainment usually barcentered with outrageous perspective and sexual innuendohightech media effect Ipods have on music stores cybercafes using wifimass media sells product in two ways in order to meet their expenses1they derive their income from selling a product directly to mass audiences movie record and book industry2they derive their income from advertisers that place advertisements for mass audiences that the media provide newspapers magazines radio and tv Advertising Revenue advertisers pay the mass media for access to potential customers ex buying space for print media or buying time for broadcastersbook publishers and moviemakers dont only rely on profit from the bookmovie they make money off books turning into movies or tv and moviemakers make money off home video markets moviemakers can make money off commercial companies paying for products to be included product placement Circulation Revenuecirculation number of copies of a publication that circulatecirculation revenue is when income is derived from the audience examples include direct audience payments such as cable tv being paid monthly or a commercialfree TMN or MpixGovernment Subsidiesgovernments supports mass media such as CBC which is mandated by the government to promote Canadian culture to Canadians it is critical for the media to seek large audiences and present media in ways that attract the greatest number of people to make largest profits or else that media will be canceledthe larger the audience the more advertisers are willing to pay for time and space to pitch their goods and servicesdemassification media focus on narrower audience segments ex magazines radio stations tv stationslatest trend has advertisers producing their own media to carry their message by mail to potential customers who through computer sorting are more targeted than magazines newspapers tv and radio could ever do alternative media emerging narrowly focused advertising vehiclesalternative media includes sponsored websites with games to attract return visits direct mail catalogues telemarketing etc conglomeration combining of companies into larger companies convergence media crossownership
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