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Lecture 3

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Communication Studies
Natalie Coulter

CS101 Lecture #3 Week 4 Radio and the Music Industry Summary of Last Week -Media acts as a watchdog -A free media is central to our democracy -Media’s democratic values comprised by conglomeration and media concentration -Google controls information about you. -Facebook can follow internet cookies Blindspots -Stories that are not reported or underreported  gate keeping Controls the stories we do see, and blocks the stories that we do not see. -The oversight reflects an ideological bias -Ex. Occupy Wall Street Is Canada a Nation? -We know we are a country of great size with diverse regions (regionalism) diverse cultures – Immigrations diverse languages – First Nations, Immigrant populations, English, French -But we are also a country that “is in bed with an elephant” American media has the advantage of a huge media industry and economies of scale Canadian media does not have access to a big audience and therefore cannot compete with American television. -So how do we know we are part of a nation? -We need to hear our “own voices” -How do you know you are Canadian? -How do you know what it feels like to be Canadian? Tim Horton’s commercials, ‘eh’, poutine, hockey -The basis of communication policy in Canada is that the media is integral to our national identity – uniting us a nation. Mass media can help build a country th Our 20 century railroad Historical Context Invention of Radio th -Early 20 century - various inventions and institutions make radio possible -1901 - wireless transmission of Morse code and discovered the electromagnetic spectrum (Guglielmo Marconi, unless it was Nikola Tesla – see pg. 55) -1906 - audion tube (Lee De Forest) -1906 - broadcast the first radio programme (Reginald Fessenden) – Holy Night sent on Christmas Eve to CS101 Lecture #3 Week 4 various ships. The ship that received it was the United Fruit Company -1918 - XWA first radio station got its license and broadcast in 1920 -1920 - KDKA also claims to be the first licensed station and the first broadcast Let’s look at Nationalities -Guglielmo Marconi (Irish-Italian but discovered it in Canada) -Lee de Forest (American) -Reginald Fessended (Canadian) -XWA Montreal, Canada. -KDKA (Pittsbursh, USA) 1920s and 1930’s-Golden Age of Radio -Radio grows in the USA and in Canada (also internationally) huge growth in private stations in USA greater audiences – greater resources Problems -Canadians were listening to lots of American radio – People trying to reach the Canadian market saw this as a problem -Sign interference (especially from the U.S.) -Airwaves were becoming too crowded - One of the reasons the Titanic sunk. Couldn’t get access to the radio because it was crowded. -Canadian radio was re-broadcasting U.S. programming -This became a concern to the government Aird Commission (1929) aka Report of the Royal Commission of Radio Broadcasting -Commissioner was Sir John Aird who was the president for CIBC -Looks at 5 central issues: educational component – quality of programming – did it provide value or not? International wavelength allotment Advertising – how did it shift the radio Ownership Canadian content CAB (Canadian Association of Broadcasters VS. CRL (Canadian Radio League) “Represent all broadcasting stations throughout Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt the Dominion” Principles: Airwaves are a public resources Principles: free market (what people wanted as -Envision a broadcasting system that was not consumers) Americanized and saw the role of the government to intervene to ensure this
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