CS101 Lecture #3 Week 4
Radio and the Music Industry
Summary of Last Week
-Media acts as a watchdog
-A free media is central to our democracy
-Media’s democratic values comprised by conglomeration and media concentration
-Google controls information about you.
-Facebook can follow internet cookies
-Stories that are not reported or underreported gate keeping
Controls the stories we do see, and blocks the stories that we do not see.
-The oversight reflects an ideological bias
-Ex. Occupy Wall Street
Is Canada a Nation?
-We know we are a country of great size with
diverse regions (regionalism)
diverse cultures – Immigrations
diverse languages – First Nations, Immigrant populations, English, French
-But we are also a country that “is in bed with an elephant”
American media has the advantage of a huge media industry and economies of scale
Canadian media does not have access to a big audience and therefore cannot compete with American
-So how do we know we are part of a nation?
-We need to hear our “own voices”
-How do you know you are Canadian?
-How do you know what it feels like to be Canadian?
Tim Horton’s commercials, ‘eh’, poutine, hockey
-The basis of communication policy in Canada is that the media is integral to our national identity –
uniting us a nation.
Mass media can help build a country
Our 20 century railroad
Invention of Radio
-Early 20 century - various inventions and institutions make radio possible
-1901 - wireless transmission of Morse code and discovered the electromagnetic spectrum (Guglielmo
Marconi, unless it was Nikola Tesla – see pg. 55)
-1906 - audion tube (Lee De Forest)
-1906 - broadcast the first radio programme (Reginald Fessenden) – Holy Night sent on Christmas Eve to CS101 Lecture #3 Week 4
various ships. The ship that received it was the United Fruit Company
-1918 - XWA first radio station got its license and broadcast in 1920
-1920 - KDKA also claims to be the first licensed station and the first broadcast
Let’s look at Nationalities
-Guglielmo Marconi (Irish-Italian but discovered it in Canada)
-Lee de Forest (American)
-Reginald Fessended (Canadian)
-XWA Montreal, Canada.
-KDKA (Pittsbursh, USA)
1920s and 1930’s-Golden Age of Radio
-Radio grows in the USA and in Canada (also internationally)
huge growth in private stations in USA
greater audiences – greater resources
-Canadians were listening to lots of American radio – People trying to reach the Canadian market saw
this as a problem
-Sign interference (especially from the U.S.)
-Airwaves were becoming too crowded - One of the reasons the Titanic sunk. Couldn’t get access to the
radio because it was crowded.
-Canadian radio was re-broadcasting U.S. programming
-This became a concern to the government
Aird Commission (1929) aka Report of the Royal Commission of Radio Broadcasting
-Commissioner was Sir John Aird who was the president for CIBC
-Looks at 5 central issues:
educational component – quality of programming – did it provide value or not?
International wavelength allotment
Advertising – how did it shift the radio
CAB (Canadian Association of Broadcasters VS. CRL (Canadian Radio League)
“Represent all broadcasting stations throughout Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt
the Dominion” Principles: Airwaves are a public resources
Principles: free market (what people wanted as -Envision a broadcasting system that was not
consumers) Americanized and saw the role of the government
to intervene to ensure this