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First Class Notes Definition of language, paralanguage. Elements of paralanguage and how paralanguage plays a very crucial role in communication.

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Communication Studies
Darryl Burgwin

CS202: What is language?  It is an open-ended system of communication.  It is able to capture new experiences.  A finite system of arbitrary symbols  These symbols can be combined following rules of grammar in infinite ways What is paralanguage?  Paralanguage includes those sounds made by the human voice  In the process of communicating  That complement the words themselves  Is not just an addition to the spoken language  Can and often changes the meaning of the words used  Almost impossible to separate language from its paralinguistic elements. According to an influential study by Albert Mehrabian:  7% of a person’s attitude/emotion is verbally conveyed  93% is nonverbally conveyed  55% is from facial expressions  38% of this is paralanguage The Elements of Paralanguage: 1. Voice Qualifiers:  Inflection: rising or falling of voice  Pacing: Slow to fast  Intensity: Strength of expression (breathy, loud, soft)  Tone: Whether it is nasally, whinny or growling  Pitch: the changes in the voice from high to low 2. Vocalizations  Vocal characterizers: laughing, crying, mumbling, moaning  Vocal segregates: vocal pauses like um, oh, ah, oh oh, and silent pauses Paralanguage plays a crucial role in responses to and evaluations of others: 1. Personality: a. We can recognized people by they’re voice b. In our culture a deep voice is associated with authority, sophistication and, of course, masculinity c. The most attractive voices vary their pitch, tone and intensity but avoid extremes d. People with a high pitched voice are seen as e. Streotype i. A preconceived and oversimplified idea of the characteristics which typify a person, situation ii. May be so consistently and authoritatively transmitted in each generation from parent to child that it seems almost like a biological fact f. Extrovert: (Fluent in personality) v
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