Class Notes (838,991)
Canada (511,156)
CP102 (99)

application software.doc

17 Pages
Unlock Document

Computer Science
Mark Petrick

Chapter 1: How will you save the world? Friday, January 11, 2013 2:50 PM More than just a job  Technology is means for career advancement  Provides necessary skill set for survival in society  Tool that allows individual to make impact beyond their own life Technology and the World Stage  Technology empowers us with tools to impact the world  Political and global issues  Social networking fueled social unrest (ex. Egypt, Kenya)  Human rights  Witness Project stops human right abuses ("See it. Film it. Change it."  The environment  Cell phones could report air and water quality  The digital divide  Great gap between levels of internet access in different regions of the world  Prevents use of all minds on planet to solve problems  Many projects address this problem of digital divide  Junkyard jumbotron  Using old cheap parts to make something more expensive Technology and Our Society  Technology allows us to redefine fundamental parts of our social makeup  How we think  What we think:  Web 2.0 allows international collaboration  Civic-minded projects appear online  Autonomy (freedom to work without constant direction/control), mastery (feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing own skills progress), purpose (understanding that you are working for something larger than yourself)  How we think of each other:  Marketing relying on exploiting stereotypes  Rise of social media changed this  People form into groups based on interests  How we connect with others  Connecting through music (virtual choir)  Connecting in new ways (a childhood walk, Google street view, DYTHR project)  How we purchase/consume products  Marketing strategies count on many people having cell phones  QR (quick response) codes link to online info, crowdsourcing (checking other people's verdict)  Idea of ownership is evolving, allows us to change relationship to objects  Collaborate consumption: joining together as group to use specific product efficiently  These areas of society are shifting rapidly because of technology Technology and Your life  Understanding technology can lead to greater productivity  Boost productivity by becoming computer literate  Understanding capabilities and limitations of computers  Knowing how to use computers efficiently Be a Savvy Computer User  Avoid hackers and viruses  Protect privacy, understand real risks  Use internet and web wisely, avoid online annoyance  Be able to maintain, upgrade, troubleshoot your computer Prepare for Your Career  Computer careers are on the rise  Retail  Businesses use data mining to search huge amounts of data to find pattern  Data mining opens door to more detail  Allows retailer to respond to consumer buying patterns  the arts  Artists display/sell work using web galleries, some work exclusively with computers  Dance and music programs use computers to create new performances (tracks motions of a dancer etc.)  Video game design (sales larger than movie industry's box office)  Large-scale games created by teams, rapid growth projected over next decade  Education  Teachers must have working knowledge of computers to integrate technology into classrooms  A research tool; allows teacher to expose students to places  Simulations and instructional software incredible learning tools  Visiting museums  Virtual tours, audio guides, podcasts, interviews with artists, multimedia tours, connect with others  law enforcement, military,  Computers used to solve increasing number of crimes (search databases on net)  Computer forensics analyzes computer systems to gather potential legal evidence  Training law enforcement officers (FBI, TSA etc.)  Facial reconstruction systems  FastSCAN wand turns skull into digital image of face (tissue-rendering programs that add layers of muscles, fat, skin to create faces that can be used to identify victims)  Medicine  Biology + technology, implantable chips repair nerve damage  Person ID chip (VeriMed) verifies identity  Helps keep Alzheimer's patients safe, chip emits signal that transmits its unique serial number to radio scanner  Provide tamperproof security measures  Biomed Chip Implants  Provide sight to blind  Microchip would attach to outside of eye and take over processing from damaged photoreceptors  Transmits electrical images to brain  Science (simulating reality)  Weather forecasting, archeology Psychology and Technology  Affective computer relates to emotion or trying to influence emotions  Emotional-social prosthesis (ESP) devices helps people with autism  Psychologists and computer scientists working to evolve systems with more human appearence Chapter 2: Looking at Computers- Understanding the Parts Tuesday, January 15, 2013 4:00 PM  Computer is a data processing device  Performs four major functions:  Input (gathers data, allows user to input data)  Process (manipulates, calculates, organizes data into info)  Output (displays data and info for user)  Storage (saves data and info for user use) Data vs. Information  Data: representation of fact, figure, idea  Information: data that has been organized/presented in meaningful fashion Bits and Bytes  Language of computers:  Bit- binary digit, 0 or 1  Byte- 8 bits  Each letter, number of character is unique combination of 0s and 1s  Computer uses combination of hardware and software to process data into info  Hardware is any part of computer you can physically touch  Software is set of computer programs (application & OS) Types:  Portable (netbooks, laptops, tablets), desktop, mainframe (supports hundreds of users simultaneously), supercomputer (performs complex calculations really fast), embedded (self- contained computer devices performing dedicated functions) Input Devices  Devices used to enter data/instructions into computer  Keyboards (QWERTY, Dvorak), mouse, microphone, scanner etc.  Mice  Optical- internal sensor/laser detects movement, moves point on screen  Wireless mouse- optical and trackball  New features: magnifier, customizable buttons, web search, file storage Monitor Types  Liquid crystal display (LCD): flat panel, light, energy efficient  Screens are grids made up of millions of pixels (RGB, sometimes yellow)  Two or more sheets of material are filled with liquid crystal solution (block/let light shine through to cause images to form on screen)  Aspect ratio, resolution, contrast ratio, viewing angle, brightness, response time  Light-emitting diode (LED): more energy efficient, better colour accuracy and thinner  Organic light-emitting diode (OLED): use organic compounds that produce light- no backlit) Processing and Memory on Motherboard Main circuit board that contains central electronic components of computer   CPU, ROM, RAM, Cache, slots for expansion cards  ROM: RAM Read only memory Random access memory Stores startup instructions Stores instructions and data Permanent (nonvolatile) storage Series of several memory cards/modules Temporary (volatile) storage  Central Processing Unit "brains"  Process all commands/instructions, controls all functions performed by computer's other components  Processor speed measured in Hz, MHz, GHz, single/dual/quad/eight cores Flash Storage  Flash drive, jump drive, USB drive (solid state drive in future)  Use solid state flash memory  Significant storage capacity, plug into USB ports (appears as another disk drive)  USB 2.0 (480 mbg per second), USB 3.0 (10 times faster) Word processors Sunday, January 20, 2013 8:49 PM Word Processing as a tool  Allows you to work with text documents  Creation- original keying in of document  Editing- making changes to document  Formatting- adjusting appearance of document to make it more attractive  Storing- saving document on disk  Retrieving- bring stored document into memory to use again  Printing- producing document on paper How it works  As you type, screen displays your work  Displays insertion point (cursor) to show where next character will appear  Word wrap automatically moves word to beginning of line below if there isn't enough room at end of line to complete world Corrections  Backspace key, delete key, undo command (reverses effect of last action- allows you to undo several actions) Formatting Features  Character Formatting  Boldface, italic, underlining (emphasize words/phrases)  Fonts- typfaces  Serif fonts- has short horizontal lines at top/bottom of letters (easier to read)  Sans serif fonts- no serifs (used for section headings/captions)  Line Formatting  Alignment- text can line up along right/left margin or centered  Tabs and indentation  Tab once to begin paragraph  Indent entire paragraph from one or both sides  Justification- evenness of text at side margins  Fully justified- text is even at both right/left margins  Left justified- text is even at left margin, ragged at right  Page Formatting  Vertical centering- adjusts top/bottom margins so text is centered  Margins define amount of white space on both sides & along top/bottom  Adjust margins, line spacing, fonts to squeeze/stretch document  Printing Envelopes  Use computer to address and print envelopes Other Features  Find command Finds all occurrences of word or phrase   Find-and-replace replaces those occurrences with different word/phrase  Pagination  Displays page numbers in document  Print preview  User can view entire page on screen (can view more than one page altogether)  Gives better overall view than looking at one screen  Footnotes  Keeps track of footnotes entered and where (adjusts margins so it appears at bottom of page)  Renumbers if footnotes added/deleted, can be converted to endnotes and vice versa  Headers and footers  Page number, date/time document was last modified, file name  Working with text blocks (highlighting)  Text block- unit of text in document (must first be selected)  Drag mouse from beginning of end of text you want  Moving- removes text from original location to new location  Copying- leaves text intact at original location and inserts at new location  Deleting- removes text from document  Spelling checker  Finds spelling errors you may have made  Compares word you typed with words on list, but doesn't recognize proper names or technical words  Thesaurus  Offers synonyms and antonyms for common words Word Processing and the Web  Save word processed documents as web pages  Allows others to access document and make changes as regular word-processed document Desktop Publishing  Can be used to design sophisticated pages  Allows you to place text/graphics on page (more professional than using word processor) Publishing Process  Page Layout  Decide how text should be laid out (text in columns separated by vertical liens)  If pictures are used, must be inserted into text, have headings  Selecting fonts  Type is described by size (measured by points- 1/72 inch), weight (whether font is heavier/darker than normal), style (special effects- italics)  Principles of god typography  Use only two or three fonts  Limit use of decorative fonts, never type text body in all caps  Use different sizes and styles of one font to distinguish heading levels, use italic or boldface (instead of underlining) for emphasis  Don't use type that is too small to make it fit on one page  Use sans serif font only for short passages  Leading and kerning  Refer to amount of white space on page  Leading- space between lines of type on page  Kerning- space between characters in a word  Appropriate amount of white space enhances readability and reduces eye strain  Half tones  Resemble photographs  Made of black dots printed on white paper  Varying number and size of dots produces shades of gray, smaller the dot pattern, the clearer the halftone Using Desktop Publishing Software  Page composition program: lets you design each page on screen  Templates: predetermined page designs where you fill own text  Most integrate clip art, images etc. Excel Spreadsheet Tuesday, January 22, 2013 3:53 PM Spreadsheets  Organize data in rows and columns  Computerized version of paper spreadsheet benefits:  Eliminates much of tedium, calculations are error-free  Worksheet automatically recalculated when one value/calculation is changed  What-if analysis: allows users to change one value and have results instantly recalculated (useful in financial forecasting) Cells and Cell Addresses  Spreadsheet divided into rows and columns  Cell is intersection of row and column  Address of cell= column letter + row number (ex. B7)  Active cell- cell available to be edited at given time Contents of Cells  Label- provides descriptive text info about entries in spreadsheet  Value- actual number that is entered into cell  Displayed value- what is displayed in cell  Formula: instruction to program to calculate number  Function: preprogrammed formula Ranges  Group of one or more adjacent cells occurring in rectangular shape Spreadsheet Features  Width of columns/heights of rows can be modified  Headings can be created as wide column  Numbers can be formatted with appropriate symbols (%, $,…), number of decimal places can be specified  Security  Cells protected so user doesn't accidently destroy complex formulas  Password protection can prevent anyone from making changes to worksheet Problem for Spreadsheet Planning the spreadsheet  Create sketch of spreadsheet (show labels/data should appear)  Specify any formulas/functions needed Making First Draft  Type column/row headings, enter data into cells, enter/test formulas Changing Spreadsheet  Change value in one cell, affects other cells Formatting and Printing  Format labels, sales numbers as currency, borders, cell shadings Creating graph from spreadsheet data  Graph created based on data in spreadsheet Business Graphics  Graphics that represent data in visual, easily understood format  Analytical graphics  Designed to help users analyze/understand specific data  Simple line, bar, pie chart graphs (few formatting options)  Presentation graphics  Let you produce charts, graphs, other visual aids  Offers more clarity, appeal than analytical graphics Using the Internet Tuesday, January 22, 2013 4:00 PM Origin of the Internet  Internet is network of networks connecting billions of computers globally (developed because of Cold War)  Established secure form of military communications  Created means by which all computers could communicate  Evolved from Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET): Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn  First communication 1969  WWW is subset of internet  Common protocols enable computers to talk to each other, special links enable navigation  World wide web is not the internet, web is subset of internet  World wide web = web pages  Internet = all services (web, email, IM etc.) The internet and how it works  Computer connected to internet acts in one of two ways:  Client is computer that asks for data  Server receives request and returns data to client  Different ways to communicate:  IM, social networking, wiki etc.  Web 2.0  Describes evolved type of web interactions between people, software, data  Classified as social web, user is also participant, describes trend of new applications Social Networking  Means by which people use internet to communicate/share info (twitter, fb)  Networking in business community (finding/filling job positions, LinkedIn, marketing and communi
More Less

Related notes for CP102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.