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Computer Science
Mark Petrick

Chapter 1: How will you save the world? Friday, January 11, 2013 2:50 PM More than just a job • Technology is means for career advancement • Provides necessary skill set for survival in society • Tool that allows individual to make impact beyond their own life Technology and the World Stage • Technology empowers us with tools to impact the world • Political and global issues  Social networking fueled social unrest (ex. Egypt, Kenya) • Human rights  Witness Project stops human right abuses ("See it. Film it. Change it." • The environment  Cell phones could report air and water quality • The digital divide • Great gap between levels of internet access in different regions of the world • Prevents use of all minds on planet to solve problems • Many projects address this problem of digital divide • Junkyard jumbotron • Using old cheap parts to make something more expensive Technology and Our Society • Technology allows us to redefine fundamental parts of our social makeup • How we think  What we think: • Web 2.0 allows international collaboration • Civic-minded projects appear online • Autonomy (freedom to work without constant direction/control), mastery (feeling of confidence and excitement from seeing own skills progress), purpose (understanding that you are working for something larger than yourself)  How we think of each other: • Marketing relying on exploiting stereotypes • Rise of social media changed this • People form into groups based on interests • How we connect with others  Connecting through music (virtual choir)  Connecting in new ways (a childhood walk, Google street view, DYTHR project) • How we purchase/consume products  Marketing strategies count on many people having cell phones  QR (quick response) codes link to online info, crowdsourcing (checking other people's verdict)  Idea of ownership is evolving, allows us to change relationship to objects • Collaborate consumption: joining together as group to use specific product efficiently • These areas of society are shifting rapidly because of technology Technology and Your life • Understanding technology can lead to greater productivity • Boost productivity by becoming computer literate • Understanding capabilities and limitations of computers • Knowing how to use computers efficiently Be a Savvy Computer User • Avoid hackers and viruses • Protect privacy, understand real risks • Use internet and web wisely, avoid online annoyance • Be able to maintain, upgrade, troubleshoot your computer Prepare for Your Career • Computer careers are on the rise • Retail • Businesses use data mining to search huge amounts of data to find pattern • Data mining opens door to more detail • Allows retailer to respond to consumer buying patterns • the arts • Artists display/sell work using web galleries, some work exclusively with computers • Dance and music programs use computers to create new performances (tracks motions of a dancer etc.) • Video game design (sales larger than movie industry's box office)  Large-scale games created by teams, rapid growth projected over next decade • Education  Teachers must have working knowledge of computers to integrate technology into classrooms  A research tool; allows teacher to expose students to places  Simulations and instructional software incredible learning tools • Visiting museums  Virtual tours, audio guides, podcasts, interviews with artists, multimedia tours, connect with others • law enforcement, military, • Computers used to solve increasing number of crimes (search databases on net) • Computer forensics analyzes computer systems to gather potential legal evidence • Training law enforcement officers (FBI, TSA etc.) • Facial reconstruction systems  FastSCAN wand turns skull into digital image of face (tissue- rendering programs that add layers of muscles, fat, skin to create faces that can be used to identify victims) • Medicine • Biology + technology, implantable chips repair nerve damage • Person ID chip (VeriMed) verifies identity  Helps keep Alzheimer's patients safe, chip emits signal that transmits its unique serial number to radio scanner  Provide tamperproof security measures • Biomed Chip Implants  Provide sight to blind  Microchip would attach to outside of eye and take over processing from damaged photoreceptors  Transmits electrical images to brain • Science (simulating reality) • Weather forecasting, archeology Psychology and Technology • Affective computer relates to emotion or trying to influence emotions • Emotional-social prosthesis (ESP) devices helps people with autism • Psychologists and computer scientists working to evolve systems with more human appearence Chapter 2: Looking at Computers- Understanding the Parts Tuesday, January 15, 2013 4:00 PM • Computer is a data processing device • Performs four major functions: Input (gathers data, allows user to input data) • • Process (manipulates, calculates, organizes data into info) • Output (displays data and info for user) • Storage (saves data and info for user use) Data vs. Information • Data: representation of fact, figure, idea • Information: data that has been organized/presented in meaningful fashion Bits and Bytes • Language of computers: • Bit- binary digit, 0 or 1 • Byte- 8 bits • Each letter, number of character is unique combination of 0s and 1s • Computer uses combination of hardware and software to process data into info • Hardware is any part of computer you can physically touch • Software is set of computer programs (application & OS) Types: • Portable (netbooks, laptops, tablets), desktop, mainframe (supports hundreds of users simultaneously), supercomputer (performs complex calculations really fast), embedded (self-contained computer devices performing dedicated functions) Input Devices • Devices used to enter data/instructions into computer • Keyboards (QWERTY, Dvorak), mouse, microphone, scanner etc. • Mice • Optical- internal sensor/laser detects movement, moves point on screen • Wireless mouse- optical and trackball • New features: magnifier, customizable buttons, web search, file storage Monitor Types • Liquid crystal display (LCD): flat panel, light, energy efficient • Screens are grids made up of millions of pixels (RGB, sometimes yellow) • Two or more sheets of material are filled with liquid crystal solution (block/let light shine through to cause images to form on screen) • Aspect ratio, resolution, contrast ratio, viewing angle, brightness, response time • Light-emitting diode (LED): more energy efficient, better colour accuracy and thinner • Organic light-emitting diode (OLED): use organic compounds that produce light- no backlit) Processing and Memory on Motherboard • Main circuit board that contains central electronic components of computer • CPU, ROM, RAM, Cache, slots for expansion cards • ROM: RAM Read only memory Random access memory Stores startup instructions Stores instructions and data Permanent (nonvolatile) Series of several memory storage cards/modules Temporary (volatile) storage • Central Processing Unit "brains" • Process all commands/instructions, controls all functions performed by computer's other components • Processor speed measured in Hz, MHz, GHz, single/dual/quad/eight cores Flash Storage • Flash drive, jump drive, USB drive (solid state drive in future) • Use solid state flash memory • Significant storage capacity, plug into USB ports (appears as another disk drive) • USB 2.0 (480 mbg per second), USB 3.0 (10 times faster) Word processors Sunday, January 20, 2013 8:49 PM Word Processing as a tool • Allows you to work with text documents • Creation- original keying in of document • Editing- making changes to document • Formatting- adjusting appearance of document to make it more attractive • Storing- saving document on disk • Retrieving- bring stored document into memory to use again • Printing- producing document on paper How it works • As you type, screen displays your work • Displays insertion point (cursor) to show where next character will appear • Word wrap automatically moves word to beginning of line below if there isn't enough room at end of line to complete world Corrections • Backspace key, delete key, undo command (reverses effect of last action- allows you to undo several actions) Formatting Features • Character Formatting • Boldface, italic, underlining (emphasize words/phrases) • Fonts- typfaces  Serif fonts- has short horizontal lines at top/bottom of letters (easier to read)  Sans serif fonts- no serifs (used for section headings/captions) • Line Formatting • Alignment- text can line up along right/left margin or centered • Tabs and indentation  Tab once to begin paragraph  Indent entire paragraph from one or both sides • Justification- evenness of text at side margins  Fully justified- text is even at both right/left margins  Left justified- text is even at left margin, ragged at right • Page Formatting • Vertical centering- adjusts top/bottom margins so text is centered • Margins define amount of white space on both sides & along top/bottom • Adjust margins, line spacing, fonts to squeeze/stretch document • Printing Envelopes • Use computer to address and print envelopes Other Features • Find command • Finds all occurrences of word or phrase • Find-and-replace replaces those occurrences with different word/phrase • Pagination • Displays page numbers in document • Print preview • User can view entire page on screen (can view more than one page altogether) • Gives better overall view than looking at one screen • Footnotes • Keeps track of footnotes entered and where (adjusts margins so it appears at bottom of page) • Renumbers if footnotes added/deleted, can be converted to endnotes and vice versa • Headers and footers • Page number, date/time document was last modified, file name • Working with text blocks (highlighting) • Text block- unit of text in document (must first be selected) • Drag mouse from beginning of end of text you want • Moving- removes text from original location to new location • Copying- leaves text intact at original location and inserts at new location • Deleting- removes text from document • Spelling checker • Finds spelling errors you may have made • Compares word you typed with words on list, but doesn't recognize proper names or technical words • Thesaurus • Offers synonyms and antonyms for common words Word Processing and the Web • Save word processed documents as web pages • Allows others to access document and make changes as regular word- processed document Desktop Publishing • Can be used to design sophisticated pages • Allows you to place text/graphics on page (more professional than using word processor) Publishing Process • Page Layout • Decide how text should be laid out (text in columns separated by vertical liens) • If pictures are used, must be inserted into text, have headings • Selecting fonts • Type is described by size (measured by points- 1/72 inch), weight (whether font is heavier/darker than normal), style (special effects- italics) • Principles of god typography • Use only two or three fonts • Limit use of decorative fonts, never type text body in all caps • Use different sizes and styles of one font to distinguish heading levels, use italic or boldface (instead of underlining) for emphasis • Don't use type that is too small to make it fit on one page • Use sans serif font only for short passages • Leading and kerning • Refer to amount of white space on page • Leading- space between lines of type on page • Kerning- space between characters in a word • Appropriate amount of white space enhances readability and reduces eye strain • Half tones • Resemble photographs  Made of black dots printed on white paper  Varying number and size of dots produces shades of gray, smaller the dot pattern, the clearer the halftone Using Desktop Publishing Software • Page composition program: lets you design each page on screen • Templates: predetermined page designs where you fill own text • Most integrate clip art, images etc. Excel Spreadsheet Tuesday, January 22, 2013 3:53 PM Spreadsheets • Organize data in rows and columns • Computerized version of paper spreadsheet benefits: • Eliminates much of tedium, calculations are error-free • Worksheet automatically recalculated when one value/calculation is changed • What-if analysis: allows users to change one value and have results instantly recalculated (useful in financial forecasting) Cells and Cell Addresses • Spreadsheet divided into rows and columns • Cell is intersection of row and column • Address of cell= column letter + row number (ex. B7) • Active cell- cell available to be edited at given time Contents of Cells • Label- provides descriptive text info about entries in spreadsheet • Value- actual number that is entered into cell • Displayed value- what is displayed in cell • Formula: instruction to program to calculate number • Function: preprogrammed formula Ranges • Group of one or more adjacent cells occurring in rectangular shape Spreadsheet Features • Width of columns/heights of rows can be modified • Headings can be created as wide column • Numbers can be formatted with appropriate symbols (%, $,…), number of decimal places can be specified • Security • Cells protected so user doesn't accidently destroy complex formulas • Password protection can prevent anyone from making changes to worksheet Problem for Spreadsheet Planning the spreadsheet • Create sketch of spreadsheet (show labels/data should appear) • Specify any formulas/functions needed Making First Draft • Type column/row headings, enter data into cells, enter/test formulas Changing Spreadsheet • Change value in one cell, affects other cells Formatting and Printing Format labels, sales numbers as currency, borders, cell shadings • Creating graph from spreadsheet data • Graph created based on data in spreadsheet Business Graphics Graphics that represent data in visual, easily understood format • • Analytical graphics • Designed to help users analyze/understand specific data • Simple line, bar, pie chart graphs (few formatting options) • Presentation graphics • Let you produce charts, graphs, other visual aids • Offers more clarity, appeal than analytical graphics Using the Internet Tuesday, January 22, 2013 4:00 PM Origin of the Internet • Internet is network of networks connecting billions of computers globally (developed because of Cold War) • Established secure form of military communications • Created means by which all computers could communicate • Evolved from Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET): Vinton Cerf, Robert Kahn • First communication 1969 • WWW is subset of internet • Common protocols enable computers to talk to each other, special links enable navigation • World wide web is not the internet, web is subset of internet • World wide web = web pages • Internet = all services (web, email, IM etc.) The internet and how it works • Computer connected to internet acts in one of two ways: • Client is computer that asks for data • Server receives request and returns data to client • Different ways to communicate: • IM, social networking, wiki etc. • Web 2.0 • Describes evolved type of web interactions between people, software, data • Classified as social web, user is also participant, describes trend of new applications Social Networking • Means by which people use internet to communicate/share info (twitter, fb) •
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