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CP102 Lecture.docx

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Department
Computer Science
Course
CP102
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Semester
Fall

Description
10/8/2013 2:47:00 PM Sam Username: [email protected] Sam Password: 02231995 Digital Revolution Social, political and economic change caused by the development of technology through four phases All changes were based on digital electronics such as the computer Digitization: the process of converting data into text, numbers, photos etc… which is processed by devices Digital devices went from: BIG AND CLUNKY to SMALL AND COMPACT PHASE 1 Data Processing Historians typically believed that the first use of computers was in the 1980s However, the first computers were used in World War 2 to decode German messages and to calculate the missile trajectory Computers in this time frame were the size of a room where programming took place on paper that had special codes which would be fed into the computer Today, computers are hand-held and can be taken anywhere from backpacks to in pockets, the use of technology is everywhere How computers work: Information is INPUTTED Information is PROCESSED Depending on the information, there is an OUTPUT PHASE 2 Personal Computing Small, stand alone and local software Local Software: pre-installed software on computer hard drive in 1992, only 10% of Americans had computers in their home PHASE 3 Network Computing Internet was opened up to the public Network: is a group of computers linked together to share data ** most technology came from the military to protect the nation and communicate internally** they had the money to in 10/8/2013 2:47:00 PM Network Computing The web collection of linked documents, graphics Web Entertainment World of warcraft: Released in November 2004 with a peak of 12million users $13-$15 monthly, interacting with other users online Cloud Computing Local applications being taken over by cloud computing Accessing information, applications, communications and storage over the internet Cloud computing is essentially convergence, where several functionalities are evolved into one single product EX: Google Drive, Google Docs Created sophisticated mobile devices Social-based network Facebook, Google+: posting with friends online Wikipedia: posting documents Digital Society Digital technology make it easy to communicate across geographical boundaries Anonymous internet sites such as ask.fm enable “freedom of speech” and hide behind a computer screen, however can be harmful Intellectual property: ownership of information, ideas and representations Free Society citizens have an expectation of privacy in their lives and online Websites track:  Purchases you make (Amazon)  Videos you watched (YouTube)  Location Services, where you are (Facebook) IMPORTANT in global and national economies Affecting economic status Globalization: defined as the worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-boarder commerce increases and as money flows freely among countries Computer Basics Accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output  all according to a series of stored instructions Input is either typed, submitted or transmitted Output is the result produced by the compter Data is the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas Central Processing Unit (CPU) does all of this Random Access Memory (RAM) holds all the data waiting to be processed, stored or outputted. Short-term memory Hard Drive is long-term storage saving files to the computer to be accessed later Stored Program: a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computers memory Application software: helping people carry out tasks System software: helps the computer system monitor himself in order to function efficiently  Windows, Mac OS X, Android Computer Types and Uses Server: serves computers on a network by supplying them with data Mainframe: large, expensive computer that simultaneously processes data for thousands of users Supercomputer: at the time of construction, its one of the fastest computers Microcontrollers A special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine that it controls Programs and Instruction Sets Codes which is an input for a program Converted into numbers 1 and 0 10/8/2013 2:47:00 PM Processor Logic CPU instruction cycle: - Fetch instruction  interpret / decode instruction  execute instruction  increment pointer to the next instruction Authentication Protocol Any method that confirms a person’s identity using something that the person knows, something the person possesses or something the person is Identified by fingerprints, facial features, retinal pattern User ID is a series of letters and numbers that become an identifier Password is the last line of defense from hacking Password Hacks Unauthorized access to personal data; commonly identity theft Dictionary Attack: guess you password by stepping through a dictionary containing thousands of the most commonly used passwords Brute Force Attack: uses password-cracking software, tried every possible combination of letters, numbers and symbols Sniffing / Phishing: which intercepts information sent out over computer networks Keylogger: software that secretly records a users keystrokes and sends the information to a hacker Secure Passwords Select a unique ID that you can use for multiple sites Maintain two or three tiers of passwords Chapter 2 Desktop Computer Systems Sits on top of desk and is powered through an electrical wall outlet Form Factor: refers to the size and dimensions of a component Portable Computers Small, lightweight Laptop, tablets, smartphones, mp3/ipods Microprocessor Basics Integrated circuit designed to process instructions CPU Measured in gigahertz comp sci: - Magnetic storage technology: stores data on the surface of a disk - Hard disk technology is the main storage and is not as durable - 3 categories for optical technology - Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry(usb sticks) - Pixel: little dot that makes up our computer screen. Red Green Blue - Graphic card. Small circuit board that plus into the system board. - Graphics circuitry generates the signal for displaying an image on the screen. - Peripheral devices can be connected. 10/8/2013 2:47:00 PM Installing Software and Upgrades Software=Program, sequence of instructions that the CPU reads/understands Web
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