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Lecture 1

CT 203 Lecture 1: CT203 - Lecture Notes - 01.07.16

3 Pages

Contemporary Studies
Course Code
James A Le Clair

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Week #1: Disease & Society January 7, 2016
I. Introducon
Hans Zinsser (1934)
 !
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" 
'( 
)! "
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3" 4567
 "85"
II. Dening Health & Disease
o?@- 
o 6
-( 
Health & Disease as Adaptive Pressure
Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016

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Week #1: Disease & Society January 7, 2016 I. Introduction Hans Zinsser (1934) Rats, Lice and History • “But however secure and well-regulated civilized life may become, bacteria, Protozoa, viruses, infected fleas, lice, ticks, mosquitos, and bedbugs will always lurk in the shadows ready to pounce when neglect, poverty, famine, or war lets down the defenses. And even in normal times they prey on the weak, the very young and the very old, living along with us, in mysterious obscurity waiting their opportunities.” • People who are living in vulnerable situations are more likely to contract a disease due the environmental deficits. • We don’t associate the tiny insects are devastating to human kind • Mosquitoes are the single biggest killer on the planet o Malaria • Bedbugs can cause mental distress and/or PTSD • Defenses are our civilized society o Paying taxes an indicator of health? • Pneumonia aka ‘Old Man’s Friend’ • If you are in the developing world and make it to the age of 15; you are just as likely to live past the age of 65 as you would have in the developed world • Death imagery is all over • 1918 Flu Pandemic o Killed more than WWI II. Defining Health & Disease Health ➢ A continuing property that can be measured by the individual’s ability to rally from a wide range and considerable amplitude of insults, the insults being chemical, physical, infectious, psychological, and social (Audy, 1971 as cited in Learmonth, 1988) o Chemical  Doing damage to the human organism thus making it more exposed to o Psychological  Inner self, self-assessment o Social  Inter-relationships o Health is like a dimmer switch; various degrees of healthy Disease ➢ “that alteration of living cells or tissues that jeopardizes survival in their [living cells] environment” ([Jacques] May, 1961) o May’s definition is only discussing the microscopic biological changes in the body ▪ Doesn’t discuss the psychological, physical, social, identity changes, etc. ▪ Doesn’t acknowledge the changes in behaviour Health & Disease as Adaptive Pressure ➢ “States of health or disease are the expressions of the success or failure experienced by the organism in its efforts to respond adaptively to environmental changes” (Dubos, 1965) o Helps to drive evolution o Crave salt because we didn’t have enough of it before o Sugar is simple, quick, energy o Fat is long term energy o Default condition is NOT to exercise Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016Week #1: Disease & Society January 7, 2016 Pathogenic Micro-orga
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