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Lecture 10

CT 203 Lecture 10: CT203 - Lecture Notes - 02.11.16

3 Pages
Fall 2015

Contemporary Studies
Course Code
James A Le Clair

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Week #6 February 11th, 2016
Paleolithic Homo (Sapiens) Sapiens
 
Hunter-Gatherers in the Historical Period
Hunter-Gatherers – Health
Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016

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th Week #6 February 11 , 2016 Paleolithic Homo (Sapiens) Sapiens ➢ Lived in small groups (20-30 individuals) ➢ Survived as foragers and hunters ➢ Used fire for cooking o Used fire for hunting as well ▪ Speculated that this is how we got our desire for how we ate flesh o Possible that it reduced food scarcity ➢ Had a life expectancy of ~25 years (~20% living 40+ years) ➢ Diseases would have been similar to early hominid ancestor species, with fewer parasitic diseases in populations living in more temperate climates o Some from water Hunter-Gatherers in the Historical Period ➢ Like their prehistoric ancestors, these peoples live in small groups of 25-30 o In the modern period, groups can be found in Africa and South America ▪ The groups were ~50 people ➢ They survive as forager, hunter and fishers ➢ Life expectancy is ~35 years o ~30% reaching 40+ years of age ▪ Cave dwelling people may have not completely lived in the cave • Bones were just found in caves ➢ Diseases of these groups include: o Intestinal parasites ▪ Drinking water has eggs of parasites in it ▪ Night soil o Salmonella ▪ Animals o Botulism o Lice o Wound/bone infections o Pneumonia o Zoonotic diseases ▪ Pre-Sapien humans did not have this problem ▪ They live in a post agricultural world • Surrounded by agriculturalists Hunter-Gatherers – Health ➢ Nutritional stress: Seasonal food scarcity o The degree depends on the amount of seasonality where they live ➢ Parasites ➢ Trauma: Wound and bone infections o Many of the animals they hunt are larger and present a great amount of risk ➢ Arthritis ➢ Dental: Low rates of dental caries (~3%) and abscesses (~3%) ➢ Acute starvation episodes: Group death ➢ Low fertility/low mortality, with adult females living longer than males o Low Mortality  Due to the absence of infectious disease ➢ Little infectious diseases Dr. James LeClair | CT203 Goldie-Anne Weiss | WLU | Winter 2016 th Week #6 February 11 , 2016 o Virtually no need for modern medicine ▪ Modern medicine DID NOT EXIST! Neolithic ➢ Agriculture involves the domestication and purposeful tending of planting and animals for food and fibre o Agriculture arose independently at various sites around the world, at least as early as about 10,000 years ago ▪ More likely that it happened as early as 15,000 – 20,000 years ago ▪ Roots and cuttings occurs before seeds o E.g., in the Middle East: ▪ Natural cereal grasses, lentils, peas ▪ Domestic cattle, goats, sheep, pigs • Earliest domesticated animals  dogs • Progressive entrenchment of animals • Never successfully domesticated a predator ➢ One of the key developments associated with agriculture is the establishment of permanent villages o The first towns were small from a contemporary perspective: 3,000 – 10,000 people ▪ Permanent settlements that allow for other things to grow ▪ Enormous new cognitive task for humans • Trying to find friend from foe • Human default state is
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