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Lecture 8

CT 203 Lecture 8: Midterm One- Midterm Two

by OneClass797905 , Winter 2016
17 Pages
79 Views
Winter 2016

Department
Contemporary Studies
Course Code
CT203
Professor
James A Le Clair
Lecture
8

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.!5##!#!B#!%%
o !#!#! !!#!
oA! ! !!
o#!!!!
3 
 ?!'
3 C
?.
 3%!!#!1!
!!%! #
o(!"!!%=%
!#!!!#
!!&&#% !;#!
 !#!!#!+!1!#!!#
#
o? !!!%!"!"!D
#
o9E(!!!!
.! F
oA !! ! !$!#
9"!#%=%!#
G#!
!!$ !#!!#
o! !!!
o! !
"! ! !!!#5 !
!
o8!!%!%%
!! ! !#!!5
o!#!5!%!"!
o!   " !
 #!!!!!%!!
o?#!"G.!=#H5
o/!!
o?"!!" !%!#
o9 !!#!!!
o "!!&!!!+
 ?!5
o= !!5#
1 !!
 3!%!#!#5
o%H!#!1
o.!% !#!%!#
.!#!"!!
0
$!!#! 
! !#&&
o&=!!%!"!#
o3!#!!
(#
!1!!!#!# 
!#!
 67
 (#!
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Description
th January 28, 2016 The Lymphatic System We have clusters of lymph nodes and they are most notable in your neck and back of head, under groin and under arms Lymph is the fluid in tissue spaces and carries protein molecules and other substances back to the blood Lymphatic vessels permit oneway movement of lymph oLymphatic capillaries are tiny, blind ended tubes microscopic in size oOne thick cell, Porous Vessels like drainage tiles, low pressure and leaky so liquid can get into them Lymph is important because it is also a highway in which immune system, cells and chemicals can reach the site of injury or infection Lymphedema Swelling (edema) of tissues caused by blockage of lymph vessels Lymphangitis oInflammation of lymph vessels, may progress to septicemia (Blood poisoning) Elephantiasis oSever lymphedema of limbs resulting from parasite infestation of lymph vessels (filariasis) oWorms in vessels oElephant like appearance in legs Lymph Nodes Located in clusters along the pathway of lymphatic vessels Functions include defense and white blood cell formation Filter lymph of bacteria, cancer cells, and damaged tissue sells Prevents them from entering blood circulation, helps to localize infections Play a critical role in keeping us healthy Where lymph is filtered Thymus Lymphoid tissue organ that plays a key role in immunity oProduces tlymphocytes (tcells: help t cells and cytotoxic killer t Cells) oT Cells come from stem cells and come in 2 varieties oHelper t Cell, Cytotoxic Killer T Cell T cells remember through Thymus Tonsils Three masses of lymphoid tissue oPalatine tonsils ( the tonsils) Back of your throat help prevent infectious from entering your body via mouth Subject to chronic inflammation (hyperactive lymphoid tissue) oPharyngeal Tonsils (adenoids)Backtop of your throat can inhibit breathing oLingual Tonsils Prevent nasaloral cavity related infection Provide protection against bacterial infection through the nasaloral cavities Spleen Largest lymphoid organ in the body Functions include oPhagocytosis (eating cells) of bacteria, foreign substances and old RBCs External Defenses and the Immune System Protects the body from pathogens, foreign tissue cells and cancer cells Made up of organs, specialized cells and molecules Provides immunity (Resistance) to the enemies of the body The immune system comes into play when our external defences fail to prevent infection First line of defences Skin Our skin is strong, flexible and waterproof shield It also acts as a chemical barrier to infection oGlands secrete antimicrobial substances oA breach of the skin leads to an inflammatory response, increasing immune system activity at the source of entry This strategy seeks to localize infection Respiratory Tract The respiratory tract is an important point of entry for pathogens oMucous in the nose and pharynx traps larger particles oIn the lower bronchial tree, the mucociliary elevator move mucous towards the mouth It is expelled through coughing or spitting, or is swallowed oSubstances in the lungs cause clumping of microbes, facilitating their destruction oAntimicrobial substances are produced in the respiratory tract oTogether,, these defence yield sterile alveoli under normal circumstances nd February 2, 2016 Midterm One th February 4, 2016 Mouth and Intestines Food and water contamination are significant sources of illness The fecaloral route is an important pathway of infection for a number of pathogens oPink eye commonly received this way someone doesnt wash hands then touches something that you do and then it is ingested Saliva contains lysozyme, an enzyme that can damage the cell walls of some bacteriafungi
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