Have critiqued from the perspective o o o o o. Explores ideologies that support/attack the idea of modern hr. Human rights - a phrase suggests - the embodies the abstract and practical. R o ealists advocate keeping two halves separate o. Which political parties will best support the advancement of our rights? o. Universalists argue both sides together are greater than separate parts. The idea of hr/rights are somehow more than it in individual parts. The concept of right be better of these two spheres (human and rights or abstract and practical) were kept apart. It is more beneficial if we separate them from the idea of human rights. Chandler - believes in political realism, support of those who believe political realism o. Ex, hanna arendt - who he talks about in the chapter. One of the most influential philosopher in 21st century. Society must accept both spheres of human rights to ensure dignity for all.