Crime and Criminology
o Edwin H. Sutherland
o Sociology of law, Scientific analysis of the causes of crime, Crime control
o Cesare Lombroso: argued about born criminals: Biological perspective of criminology
o Theory argued that violent male criminals have an abnormal XYY chromosome
o An interdisciplinary scientific study of crime and criminal behaviour, including their form, causes, legal aspects,
and control (Criminal behaviour, motivations, our reactions to it)
o What questions would a psychologist ask about school violence?
o Mental illness, health problems – brain tumor, genetics
o What questions would a sociologist ask about school violence?
o Family background, upbringing, relationships, familial issues, rough community, weak social bonds
o These can also come together
NORMS: Acceptable standards of behaviour shared by members of a particular group or society (Prescriptive function)
Deviance (The breaking of norms)
o Behaviours, beliefs or characteristics that many people in society find or would find offensive and which provoke,
upon discovery, disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or reality.
Deviance exists when
o Violation of a social norm
o A person or persons who engage in the act, express the belief, or possess the condition
o An audience to judge and evaluate the normative violation
o High likelihood of a negative social reaction
o Actions and conditions widely recognized, in advance and in general to be deviant
o High consensus
o The predominance or pre-eminence of one group and its values over other groups