Intro to Criminology – Lecture 1 9/17/2013 11:51:00 AM
o TA Crystal Shor
o RAC 226 Thurs. 1-4
o [email protected]
Basics of Criminology
o Scientific study of crime, criminology and the criminal justice system
o The law should not be changed only based on one crime happening, e.g. teen girl in Toronto
killed on school bus. Law constructed on one case is a bad law
o Emile Durkheim he studied suicide. Why do people commit suicide? He looked at the
statistics and also started to ask questions. Looked at it scientifically.
o What is a crime?
o People believe that committing a sin against God causes deviance.
o Black is associated with being a widow. Witchcraft. The sins of the father, your parents sin
against god or, satin influences you.
o Different forms of Law
o Behavioral norms, the way we are expected to act. Lining up in England meaning you have
your place in line, you cannot cut ahead. Norms can lead to laws.
o Is the study of victims
o Victim witness assistants
o Started in the 1970’s
o Dark Figure of Crime: All the crime that is committed but is not reported (fear, not serious
o In Canada all crime statistics are reported to Ottawa (stats Canada)
o If you are reckless to what will ensue you will be convicted.
o Sociology of Law: looks at the structures of society, power relations in society
o Malainse Crimes: Crimes of themselves or in themselves.
o Mala Prohibita- crimes committed by statue or legislation o Intro to Criminology – Lecture 2 9/17/2013 11:51:00 AM
Basics of Criminology
Heinous crimes – universally criminal events (rape)
o We all agree in a majority with what has been criminalized and what the law prohibits
o People still break the laws such as being on a cell phone while driving, j walking, speeding
o Argues that there are various groups that are fighting for power, who has the power to make
What is a Crime?
There are two elements to a crime
1. Actos Reus – means the act, has to be proven
2. Mens Rea – the mental element, you must prove the individual has intent to commit the
crime (the guilty mind)
Beyond the reasonable doubt – prove that it did occur
Circumstantial Evidence – direct evidence (eye witness is the best if reliable)
o Partial Defense: Does not relieve you of all responsibilities (provokes)
o Intoxication: is not a defense, it use to be
o Self Defense: you can use reasonable force to defend the attack
o Insanity: they do not know right from wrong, mentally unstable
o Automatism: being asleep while you are committing crime (sleepwalking) Ex. Ken Parks
o Caused by stress, recognized medical condition
o Sexsomnia: extremely rare, form of automatism. Having sex with someone but they are not
o Consent: mainly dealing with sexual assault (rape), only two sides the victim and the
offender. Sexual assault with injury, or sexual assault without injury/death. Did the victim
o Mistaken Fact: you thought something was legitimate but it was not and was stolen
o Deterrence : the existence of criminal laws deters us from criminal activity
o Specific Deterrence: trying to deter the individual from criminal act (habitual offenders) o Stigmatization: is a marking that indicates they have been involved in criminal activity
o Victimless Crimes: Invented by Ed Schor. There are certain activities between two adults
that are consensual but they are criminal
o Research Methods 9/17/2013 11:51:00 AM
is a blunt instrument, you collect a lot of data very quickly and it is fast to a